Alice Bailly (1878-1938):Alice Bailly was a painter, wood engraver and mixed media artist. She was born and studied in Geneva, Switzerland,
but won notice for her art in Paris between 1904-1916. She was associated with the Cubists whose influence may be seen in own paintings.
References:Seeing Ourselves:Women's Self-Portraits by Frances Borzello, pp.152, 154.
Vanessa Bell(1879-1961):Vanessa Bell was the daughter of Sir Leslie Bell
and the sister of Virginia Woof.She was part of the Bloomsbury group of writers,
artists and intellectuals. Vanessa Bell studied art at the Royal Academy and
her work reflects the influence of the French artistic traditions of the late
nineteenth century. Bell was also a an illustrator, and designer whose innovative
work helped change the style of modern textiles and ceramics.
References:Sketches in Pen and Ink; The Sister's Arts : The Writing and Painting of
Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell by Diane Filby Gillespie; Vanessa Bell by Frances Spaulding.
Vanessa Bell and Bloomsbury Art
Dora Carrington (1893-1932): Carrington (she did not use her given name Dora) was part of the circle of artists, intellectuals
and writers who made up the Bloosbury group. Carrington's relationship with
Lytton Strachey has been portrayed in the recent movie Carrington.
A highly gifted artist, Carrington nevertheless remained an obscure figure until
recently. She was a prize-winning student of the Slade School of Drawing, Painting
and Sculpture. Her versatility is reflected in the wide range of subjects she
drew or painted in a variety of media. She was also a muralist, book illustrator
References:Carrington: Paintings, Drawings,and Decorations by Noel Carrington;
Carrington:a life of Dora Carrington, 1893-1932 by Gretchen Gerzina;
The Art of Dora Carrington by Jane Hill.
Dora Carington on the Internet
Minnie Evans (1892-1987:Minnie Evans was an African American artist whose work began in the late 1930s and early 40s. She painted
from visions and a highly personal spirituality. Most of her images integrate design and art in her unique combinations of flowers
and human faces. Sharon Patton notes "a noticeable feminine presence . . .suggesting a sexuality, an eroticism, through
dreaming." Late in her life Evans' works were recognized by prestigious art institutions and collectors. The Whitney Museum of American Art
held a solo exhibition of her works in 1975.
References: African American Art by Sharon F. Patton, p. 229-230.
Minnie Evans on the Internet
Biography of Minnie Evans
Meta Warrick Fuller (1877-1968): Meta Warrick Fuller finished her art training at the
Pennsylvania Museum School of Industrial Art in 1899. She subsequently went to Paris to study at
the Academie Colarossi and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Rodin proclaimed her "a born sculptor" and she also
worked at the studio of Saint-Gaudens.Fuller exhibited at the L'Art Nouveau Gallery in Paris as well as in several
locations after her return to the United States in 1902. A meeting with W.E.B. Dubois led to a turning point in her artistic career. He advised her
to use African and African American subjects for her works and to use art as an expression of the African American experience.
Dubois later commissioned Fuller to do a piece to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation.
Fuller's most famous sculpture, "Ethiopia Awakening," became symbolic of the rise in Pan-Africanism both in the political and cultural world.
References:African American Art by Sharon F. Patton, pp. 106-107.
Meta Warrick Fuller on the Internet
Natalya Goncharova (1881-1962):Natalya Goncharova was born into a prominent family in Russia. She studied at the
Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. Goncharova began as a sculptor but switched to painting. Her early works
reflect the influence of French Impressionism but she moved increasingly toward abstractionism and what she and a fellow artist
Mikhail Larinov called Rayonism. Fundamentally, Rayonism focused on the representation of light emanating from, and reflecting off of objects.
Goncharova was also a theatrical set and costume designer who was frequently called upon by Serge Diaghilev and the Ballet Russe.
References:Goncahraova:Stage Designs and Painting by Mary Chamot.
Natalya Goncharova at the Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco
Gwen John (1876-1939):Gwen John was trained with her brother Augustus John at the Slade School of
Drawing, Painting and Sculpture.She also studied at the Academie Carmen in Paris with Whistler.
Gwen John was primarily a portraitist who painted women. She herself also served as a model for
several celebrated artists including August Rodin.
References:Gwen John, 1876-1939 by Susan Chitty; Gwen John: An Interior Life by Cecily Langdale;
Gwen John:The Artist and Her Work by Mary Taubman; Portraits of Women: Gwen John and Her
Forgotten Contemporaries by Alison Thomas;
Gwen John at the Tate
Lois Mailou Jones (born 1905-): Lois Mailou Jones was born in Boston and demonstrated
her talent for art at an early age. She studied at the Boston Museum School and worked as a textile designer and illustrator while
she continued her art studies. In 1937 Jones won a scholarship to the Academie Julien in Paris. Her move to
Paris was a significant factor in terms of her artistic growth. There she encountered less racial prejudice
and her art was supported. Jones' paintings have been influenced by both the Fauvist movement and by African
sculpture. Her later works are influenced by her life in Haiti and marriage to the legendary Haitian artist Louis Verniaud Pierre Noel.
References:The Life and Art of Lois Mailou Jones by Tritobia Hayes Benjamin.
Lois Mailou Jones Gallery
Lois Mailou Jones
Gabriele Munter (1877-1962):Gabriele Munter was one of the artists including Kandinsky, Marianne von Werefkin, Alexei Jawlenski,
and Franz Marc who were part of the Blau Reiter or Blue Rider group prior to the First World War. Munter's work, like those of the other artists
of the Blau Reiter, emphasized the the reduction of forms to simplified shapes and colors edged by dark outlines. Influenced by Fauvism, Munter's work, nevertheless also
owed its synthesis to the influence of Bavarian glass work with its geometric blocks of bold pure colors.
References:Wassily Kandinsky and Gabriele Munter by Annegret Hoberg; Gabriele Munter: Between Munich and Murnaau by A. Mochon.
Selected Paintings of Gabrielle Munter
Augusta Savage (1892-1962):Augusta Savage studied in New York City and gained a reputation
as a portraitist of the Negro Renaissance leaders. She went to Paris on a Rosenwald Foundation fellowship
that enabled her to continue her studies. She return to the United States in 1934 and became the first African American woman
to be elected to the National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors. In 1937, she became the first African American artist to be selected
for a commission to design a piece for the New York World's Fair. She designed a very large work based on James Weldon Johnson's poem
Lift Every Voice and Sing that was design to pay tribute to African American contributions to music. Savage would go on to become director
of Harlem Commounity Arts Centre under the auspices of the WPA. She was also an ardent supporter and mentor to rising African American artists.
References:African American Art by Sharon F. Patton, pp. 129-130.
Augusta Savage Biography
Augusta Savage:Proponent of African American Artists
Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938):Suzanne Valadon came to the attention of the art world when Degas bought three of her works in 1893. Valadon
specialized in nudes, portraits and thematic pieces. Her use of color and her bold representations of female sexuality challenged the traditional male
constructions of femininity. Valadon's powerful renditions of women's bodies probably arose from her own experience as an artist's model and circus performer.
Valadon received no formal art training, but through her close associations with prominent artists she was able to develop
a re-gendering of women's bodies and strength. The self-absorbtion and vitality of her subjects, for instance, are in stark opposition
to the essential passiivity of females nudes that had until then been the traditional manner of representing womanhood.
Valadon was married first to the artist Paul Mousis. She later married the painter Andre Utter by whom she had the artist
Maurice Utrillo who was born in 1883.
Utrillo's Mother by Sarah Baylis;
Suzanne Valadon by Therese Diamond Rosinsky;
Suzanne Valadon by Jeanine Warnod.
Suzanne Valadon on the Internet
Marianne von Werefkin (1860-1938):Marianne von Werefkin studied at the Moscow
Art School and in St. Petersburg.In 1902 she met the painter Alexei Jawlensky with whom she became involved romantically.
Together with Jawlensky she travelled to Murnau where the couple were to work alongside Wasily Kandinsky and Gabrielle Munter.
ofh the Fauvists. Von Werefkin painted a range of subjects including portraits and landscapes. Her theoretical work on Expressionism and Synbolism
was published between 1901-1905.
References: Marianne von Werefkin by B. Fathke; Voicing Our Visions: Writings by Women Artists by Mara R. Witzling.
Marianne von Werefkin's Paintings at the Museum Wiesbaden