Claricia: 12th century manuscript illuminator of Augsburg, Germany. She painted herself as the tail of the letter Q. Judging by her dress she was probably a lay person.
References: Women Artists in History by Wendy Slatkin, pp.26-27;
Women, Art and by Whitney Chadwick, p.54.


Diemud or Diemudis (1057-1130): 12th century nun and manuscript illuminator. Her self portrait is embedded in the letter S. She was a nun of the Cloister of Wessobrun in Bavaria and reputedly responsible for over 45 manuscripts.
References: Seeing Ourselves: Women's Self Portraits by Frances Borsello, p. 37;
Women, Art and Society by Whitney Chadwick, p. 54.


Ende: One of the 10th-11th century illuminators of Beatus Apocalypse of Gerona., a manuscript written and illustratedin northwest Spain. Ende, signs herself depentrix female painter, and dei autrix, God's helper.
References: Women, Art and Society by Whitney Chadwick, p. 47;
Women Artists:An Illustrated History by Nancy G. Heller, p. 20;
Anastaise and Her Sisters: Women Artists of the Middle Ages by Dorothy Miner.


Guda: German12th century nun and illuminator. Also known as Guta. A banner in the Homilary of Saint Bartholomew proclaims in Latin "Guda, woman and sinner, wrote and painted this book." Her self-portrait is embedded in the letter D of this manuscript.
References: Seeing Ourselves: Women's Self Portraits by Frances Borzello, p. 38; Women, Art and Society by Whitney Chadwick, p. 54;
Women, Art ists in History by Wendy Slatkin, pp. 26-27.


Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179): Daughter of a Rhineland knight to the court of Count Spanheim. Took the vows of a Benedictine nun in 1117 and became abess in 1136. Trained in scripture, Latin and music. She is regarded as one of the great musicologists, mystics, naturalists and writers of the Middles Ages. Although not generally regarded as an artist Hildegard is regarded, nevertheless, as the illustrator of the Scivias (Know the Ways of the Lord) which was begun in 1142.
References: Women, Art and Society by Whitney Chadwick, pp. 59-62;
Hildegard of Bingen: Inspired Conscience of the Twelfth Century, by Regine Pernoud
Women, Artists in History by Wendy Slatkin, p. 25.


Herrad of Landsberg (1125-1195) Abess of Hohenburg and compiler-illuminator of the Hortus Delciarum (The Garden of Delights). This large folio consists of parchment 324 pages and 636 miniature illustrations. There are over a thousand texts by different authors on different subjects including poems by Herrad herself.
References: Women, Art and Society by Whitney Chadwick, pp.56-58.


Bourgot: A fourteenth century professional French illuminator. Daughter of Jean Le Noir. Some of the best miniatures of the period have been attributed to her. The joint work of Bourgot and Jean Le Noir may be seen in The Book of Hours, circa 1353
References: Women, Art and Society by Whitney Chadwick, p.64;
The Limbourgs and Their Contemporaries, volume 1 by Millard Meiss.