28.  Musical Instruments (Straw Whistle)

29.  Conductors

30.  Electromagnets

31.  Electrolysis

32.  Secret Circuits

33.  Buoyancy (different objects)

34.  Color of Sun (adding colors to give white)

35.  Repulsion of Like Charges

36.  Lemon Battery Experiment

37.  Blow up a Balloon with baking soda and vinegar

38.  Make your own light bulb

39.  Black Magic  (colors)

40.  The stick-o-meter (sticking force)

41.  2 point discrimination test (bio)

42.  Inside-out-Bag  (Air pressure)

43.  Spider Gliders

44.  Cloud in a Bottle

45.  The human vacuum cleaner  (Air Pressure)

46.  Making a Compass

47.  Milky Magic

48.  Making a Circuit

49.  Where does a Magnet work?

50.  Alka-Seltzer Rockets

51.  Powerful Push-Up  (air pressure)

52.  Dancing Coin

54.  Magnets through Air, Liquid and Solids

55.  Airplane without wings

56.  The fly ball game

57.  Making Waves

58.  Magnets and Metals

59.  Balance

60.  Jumping Rice (electrostatics)

Amanda Dunn

# 28.    Physics of Music

This experiment is composed of three different experiments where each shows how to achieve different pitches.  The first experiment is called “Good Vibrations”.  It illustrates that object made longer vibrate slowly and makes a sound of a lower pitch.  The second experiment is called “Pluck-A-Cup Strummer”.  This challenges students to discover ranges of pitch that can be played by plucking a rubber band attached to a paper cup.  The length of the rubber band affects the pitch.  Holding the rubber band at different points along the length will produce lower pitched sounds with greater lengths and higher pitched sounds with shorter length.  Length had a much greater impact on pitch than does degree of stretch.  The third experiment is called “straw whistle symphony!”  This illustrates the relationship between length of a vibrating object and its pitch.  Students will see that a very small change in the length of the straw changes the pitch of the straw.  Below are directions on how to complete each individual experiment.

The needed materials for “Good Vibrations!” are a flexible ruler and a table.  The first step is to extend most of a ruler over the edge of a table, pressing the other end against the table with the palm of your hand.  Lightly thump the extended end and listen carefully to the sound the vibrating ruler makes.  The second step is to thump the end of the ruler lightly again, but this time watch the ruler to see how fast it is vibrating.  The third step is to thumb the ruler harder.  Will it vibrate faster or will the vibrations just be larger?  Does the sound change?  The fourth step is to thumb the ruler with only a small length extended over the edge of the table. The last step is to see how many sounds you can make with the ruler. Change the length of the ruler and the strength of the thumbs and see what happens?

The needed materials for “Straw Whistle Symphony!” are straws and scissors.  The students should wash their hands before starting this experiment.  Flatten one end of a straw by biting down on it and then pulling it between their closed teeth.  Cut the flattened end into a point.  Place the pointed end of the straw whistle in your mouth, press down gently with your lips, and blow.  Practice will be needed to get the whistle to work.  Next cut about ¼ of the straw from the unflattened end and play it. How does the whistle sound?  Then make a new straw whistle.  Have a partner cut the straw while one person it playing it.  How does it sound? Now experiment and see what the students come up with their own experiments.

The materials need for “Pluck-A-Cup Strummer” are a disposable plastic or paper cup, long rubber bands, tape, and a sharpened pencil.  The first step is to cut the rubber band to make it a single long rubber string.  It should be at least 15 cm unstretched.  If not you make need to tie two or more rubber bands together.  The second step is to use a sharp pencil to poke a very small hole in the center of the bottom of the cup.  Tie a knot in one end of your rubber string, then run the string through the hole in the bottom of the cup. Place a piece of tape across the knot inside the cup.  Fourth is to hold the cup up to one ear and gently pluck the rubber string.  The final step is to discover how many differently pitched sounds you can produce with the Pluck-A-Cup Strummer.  Try holding the rubber band closer and farther from the cup to change the pitch.  What else could be changed to make different pitches?

These three experiments will give the children their own chance to experiment by themselves.  These experiments are inexpensive, fun, and easy to do.  Enjoy!

## 29.Conductors

Kassi Pierce

Purpose: To determine if all materials conduct electricity.

Materials:

·Spring type clothes pin

·1 D-cell battery

·Aluminum foil

·Flashlight bulb

·Testing materials: rubber band, paper, penny, nickel, dime, quarter

Procedure:

·Cut a rectangle of aluminum foil, 24in. X 12in.

·Fold the aluminum piece in half lengthwise five times to form a thin strip 24in. long.

·Cut the aluminum strip in half to form two 12in. strips

·Tape one end of each of the metal strips to the ends of the battery.

·Wrap the free end of one of the metal strips around the base of the flash light bulb. Hold the strip in place

with the clothespin.

·Test the electrical conductivity of the materials collected by touching the metal tip on the bottom of the

flashlight bulb to one side of the material while touching the free end of the metal strip to the opposite side

of the same material.

Write down your observations of each testing material.

1.Rubber band:_______________________________________________________

2.Paper:_____________________________________________________________

3.Penny:_____________________________________________________________

4.Nickel:____________________________________________________________

5.Dime:______________________________________________________________

6.Quarter:___________________________________________________________

Results:The coins were the only materials that caused the bulb to glow.

Why? An electric circuit is the path through which electrons move. A switch is a material that acts as a

bridge or pathway for the electrons. When the switch is closed, the electrons move freely, but when it is

open, the electrons stop. The only materials tested that allowed electrons to flow through them were those

made of metal. Touching the paper clip to one side allowed the electrons to flow out of the negative part of

the battery through the aluminum tape (conductor) into the bulb. The electrons continue their path from the

bulb through the aluminum strip and back into the positive end of the battery. As long as there is no break in

the system, the electrons continue to flow and the bulb will continue to glow.

Giselle DeGuia

30.      Electromagnets

What is a magnet?

A magnet is an object that is made up of materials that attract (pull toward) anything made of iron or steel.  This type of magnet is permanent.  It always works.

Show a permanent magnet.

What is an electromagnet?

An electromagnet is a temporary magnet that only works when there is current flowing through its coil.  When the magnet loses its magnetic field it does not attract anymore.

Show an temporary magnet or electromagnet.

How does it work?

A magnetic field around a wire is circular and perpendicular to the wire.  To make the wire’s magnetic field stronger and add to it, we can coil the wire. Like shown:

One loop's magnetic field

Now let’s try and make our own ELECTROMAGNETS !

Supplies needed for electromagnet:

1.5 v battery, long thin screw, electric tape and thin copper wire (insulated or not) (about 20 in. depending on how strong you want the electromagnet)

These can all be found at your local hardware store.

-Take the 20 in. wire and wrap it as tight as possible around the screw leaving about 2 in. strand on each side. Make sure the wire is coiled close together and is touching the screw.

-Tape one end of the wire to the bottom of the battery making sure that the wire goes right through the center of the bottom of the battery.  Do the same with the other end of the wire to the top of the battery also making the wire go through the center of the top of the battery.

-Hints:

*Hold the battery where the label is and NOT where the wire was taped.  The wire and screw can get very Hot.

*The more coils around the screw the stronger the magnet.

( More coils means more magnetic field which leads to a stronger magnet)

Now that everyone has made their magnets, See whose electromagnet is the strongest by letting the screw part of the electromagnet roll around in a pile of paper clips.  Whoever has the most paperclips connected to the screw in one lift wins!

31.           ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Splitting Water ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Michele Pena

Subject:  Science

Teaching Strategy:  Small groups

Objective:  To illustrate for students that not only is electricity used to power machines, it can be used to produce chemical changes.

Materials provided:

·        Plastic cup

·        1 tsp. Salt

·        Popsicle stick

·        2 pencils

·        3 x 5 card

·        9 Volt battery with electrical wires

Procedure:

Step 1.   Obtain warm water from restroom filling plastic cup 2/3 full.

Step 2.   Pour salt into water and mix with Popsicle stick, let stand.

Note:  Electrolysis is the process in which electric current passes through a substance causing a chemical change, usually the gaining or losing of electrons.  Can you predict what will occur when a current is introduced into a cup of water?________________________________________________________

Step 3.   Using a pen, poke two holes about an inch apart in the center of the 3 x 5 card.  Place the 2 sharpened pencils into these holes.

Step 4.   Attach the 9 Volt battery to the holder and wires.

Step 5.   Place the 3 x 5 card on top of the cup of water so that two pencil ends are submersed in the water.

Step 6.   The pencil ends sticking up are acting as electrodes, touch one wire to each of the ends of the pencils.  Observe what happens in the water.

What do you think is happening?___________________________________________

Hydrolysis is the chemical reaction in which water and another reactant exchange functional groups to form two products, hydrogen and oxygen.

Conclusion:  We have used the chemical electricity of the battery to pass through and between the electrodes (the pencils) and split the water into hydrogen and oxygen, which collect as very tiny bubbles around each pencil tip.

32.     Secret Circuits (4th grade and up)

Jackie Romo

I. Purpose: A circuit is a “loop” for electricity to travel through. In this activity, students will learn about circuits and how they work.

II. Materials needed:

1 D size Battery

1 flashlight bulb

18-26 gauge copper wire (sold at home depot)

1 15X26 cm piece of cardboard

8 brass fasteners

Pen or pencil

1 marker for labeling

*Before making your circuit board, decide whether you, the teacher, want to make the circuit board for your students ahead of time or if you want your students to make the board themselves.  If your students make the board, have them trade their circuit board with other groups or students in the class so that circuits stay a secret.  The students should not know where the wires are located.

III. Procedure:

1. Cut out a 15X26cm piece of cardboard.

2. With a pen or pencil, poke 8 holes through the cardboard and label each hole 1-8. (this is the front side of your board.)

3. Push the brass fasteners through the holes and open the leaves of the fasteners to secure them.

4. Cut 3 pieces of wire about 6 cm long and attach each wire on the back side of the circuit board to any two brass fasteners. Make sure to connect the wire to the fasteners on the backside of the cardboard so that when you flip it over to the front side, all you can see are the labeled, brass fasteners; not the wires.

1. Cut two 25 cm long pieces of copper wire.

2. Take one wire and wrap one end of it around the metal base of the bulb and twist the wire closed.  Secure the wire with tape but do not cover the bottom tip of the bulb.

3. Connect the other end of the of the wire to the positive end of the battery and secure it with tape.

4. Take the other copper wire and secure one end to the negative side of the battery.

IV. Activity

Students should now try to find where the 3 wires are hidden without flipping over the circuit board.  In order to make a complete circuit and make the flashlight bulb light, the battery, wire, and bulb must make a complete circuit or loop, with at least one of the hidden wires.

To find the hidden wires, touch the free end of the wire from the battery to any brass fastener on the top of their circuit board. Then, touch the bottom tip of the bulb to any other fastener.  If the bulb lights, then there must be one or more wire connecting the two brass fasteners.  Have the students test their board until they are able to guess where all 3 wires are hidden.

Have the students draw their circuit board to record results.

V. Source: The Best of Wonder Science

33.            Buoyancy

Elaine Galvery

Purpose:  To be made aware of the principles of buoyancy and

how we see or experience it in our every day lives.

Supplies:  medium plastic containers, golf balls, ping-pong balls or empty plastic Easter egg shells, clay, pennies or hard candy pieces (Skittles), paper for flags, toothpicks or masts.

Instruction (optional):  The teacher can tell the students about divers and what

they have to do to either stay afloat or dive. The following website, www.uncwil.edu/nurc/aquarius/lessons/buoyancy, gives good information about the Aquarius Sea Lab, scientific divers, and information for supportive instruction on buoyancy.

Activities:

1. Students will fill their plastic containers about 2/3 full of water.
2. Students will take their golf balls and decide if they will sink or float.
3. Students will drop carefully the golf ball into the water.  What happens?
4. Students will now take the empty plastic Easter egg shells and decide if they will sink or float.  They will carefully drop the egg into the water.  What happens?
5. Students will be asked to fill their egg with the candy and see how many pieces it takes before the egg starts to sink.  You can make a contest out of this – who got the most candies inside the egg and it still floats.
6. Students will now take some clay and make a ball out of it, about the same size as the golf ball.  Will the clay ball sink or float?
7. Since the clay ball did sink, instruct the students to shape the clay into a boat with greater surface area.  They will probably experiment as to what shape this boat will be.  Then have the students try to float their boat.  There will most likely have to be modifications made on their boats for them to be successful.
8. When they finally get their clay boats to float in the containers, give them a toothpick and some paper to make a mast and sail for their boat.
9. Now ask the students to begin filling their boats with the hard candies.  Again a contest can be done to see whose boat can hold the most candy and still float.

Conclusion:  Students have had interactive activities that help them gain a better understanding of what buoyancy is.  Archimedes Principle can be mentioned and be introduced to “displacement of water vs. an objects buoyant force.”  Students have learned that weight and mass affect an objects ability to sink or float through the construction of their own clay boats.

## Breanna Bly

Purpose:  To show that the sun has all the colors of the spectrum

Materials: Compass (or handout), crayons, scissors, glue and string.

Procedure:

1.      Draw two six inch diameter circles.

2.      Bisect the circles into six equal parts

3.      Color each section a different color using red, green, yellow, blue, purple and orange.

4.      Cut both circles out.

5.      Glue both non colored sides together.

6.      Punch two holes near the center of the circle.

7.      Use a string or rubber band, and place it in one hole and out the other and tie the two ends of the

string together.

8.                                       Place your index finger through the string on both sides, twist back and forth to see white light.

35.            Repulsion of Like Charges

(Tammy Ritter)

Objective:  To understand the concept behind "static" electricity and positive and negative charges.

Materials:  String, cheerio cereal, comb, balloon, paper plate, salt and pepper, a piece of wool or felt.

Procedure:  Review positive and negative signs and remind the kids that electrons move.  Tie the string to a piece of cheerio cereal and have someone hold the string in the air or attach it to something so that it is free standing.  Take the comb through your hair to gain an electric charge.  Bring the comb toward the cheerio and watch it attract to the comb and then bounce off.  (The cheerio is neutral and therefore attracted to the negatively charged comb.  When they touch, the cheerio receives the negative charge and then repels the comb because they have the same charge.)  Next, sprinkle some salt and pepper onto a paper plate.  Stir it up.  Ask someone to separate the salt and pepper for you.  After a minute or so of trying offer some assistance.  Blow up a balloon, rub wool or felt on the balloon.  Bring the balloon one inch above the plate and watch the pepper jump from the plate onto the balloon.

Follow up:  Discuss why the pepper is attracted to the balloon.  (The balloon has a negative charge and the negative electrons in the pepper repel by going to the end of the pepper that is opposite that of the balloon leaving the positive protons to be on one the side of the pepper closest to the balloon.)  Next you could let them do the experiment on their own.

36.                       Lemon Battery Experiment                           Valerie Walker

 For today’s science experiment, it’s possible to make your own simple battery out of materials you find around the house.  You will need: 1 Lemon 1 Galvanized Roofing Nail Heavy Copper Wire Voltmeter (see below) Steps Take a lemon. Roll it on a table until it feels juicy inside. Insert a galvanized roofing nail into the lemon. Insert a piece of heavy copper wire into the lemon. Make sure that the wire is close to, but not touching, the nail.

In this case, the zinc coating on the nail is the negative electrode and the copper wire is the positive electrode.  The lemon juice, which is slightly acid, acts as the electrolyte.  You have just created a battery cell!

You can use a voltmeter to measure the voltage of your cell.  Touch the negative lead on the voltmeter to the nail and the positive lead to the wire.  It should read nearly a half a volt.  If you take the nail out and replace it with a paperclip you will see the reading on the voltmeter decrease.  You can also connect several lemon batteries to measure the increasing voltage.

37.   BLOW UP A BALLOON WITHOUT WASTING A SINGLE BREATH                                                                          Tanya Lopez

Material: plastic (1liter) bottle
balloons
tissue paper(different colors)
1/2 C vinegar
1 T baking soda
Directions:  Place a tablespoon of baking soda onto the tissue.  Roll the tissue into a tube around the baking soda and twist closed the ends like a rolling pin.  (2) Pour the vinegar into the bottle - drop the baking soda into the bottle.  (3)  Moving quickly, slip the neck of the balloon over the opening of the bottle and hold it in place.

Objective:  Action, reaction, result - when the tissue paper tears and the baking soda and vinegar melt, a reaction takes place, carbon dioxide, a gas is produced.  The gas expands out of the bottle and into the balloon - Blowing it up.

Key words for students:  Expand:  to increase in size or volume.
Gas:  a state of matter, such as air, that has no difinite shape, but takes the shape
of the container it is in.

# Nancy Keller

38.            Make Your Own Light Bulb!

Supplies:

- 3 Fresh flashlight batteries (D cells, 1.5 volts)

- Metric ruler

- Tape

- 2 insulated copper wires (25 cm long)

- Nail

- 1 wire twist tie (from a plastic bag)

- Modeling clay

- Small glass jar (baby food jar)

Instructions:

1.      Lay three batteries end-to-end.  The positive ends of the batteries should all point in the same direction.  You and your partner should tape the batteries together.

2.      Mold some clay into a patty a little bigger around than the mouth of the jar.  This will be the base of your light bulb.  Poke your two wires up through the modeling clay base.  The wires should stick out about 5 cm and be about 3 cm apart.

3.      Peel off the paper or plastic from the twist tie so that only the bare wire remains.  Wind the wire around the nail so that your wire is coiled like a spring.  Leave a little bit of the wire straight at both ends.  Take the wire off the nail.  The wire is the filament for your light bulb.

4.      Twist the ends of the copper wire around the ends of the filament to attach the filament to the wires.  Do not let the coils of the filament touch each other.  Turn the glass jar upside down over the wires and filament.  Press the jar down into the clay.  You light bulb is now ready to light!

5.      Darken the room.  Touch the ends of the wires to ends of your battery.  One wire on one end of the battery and the other wire on the other end of the battery.  Hold them on tightly.  Watch the filament.  What happens?  The electrical energy in the batteries is converted into what other kind of energy?

6.      Experiment to make a better light bulb.  You might change the length, thickness, or kind of metal used for the filament or for the connecting wires, or change the strength or number of batteries.  What kind of changes do you think will make the light bulb burn more brightly?

Be sure that:

1.      You get off ALL the paper or plastic from your twist tie, it will smoke and burn when you light your light bulb.

2.      The jar is in place before connecting the wires to the batteries.

3.      The wires are disconnected before removing the jar.

4.      Not to touch the wires after burning your light bulb, they are very hot.

39.    Black Magic

Longina Burroughs

# Objectives

• To find out what makes up the color black.

What do I need?

·        Scissors

·        White coffee filters

·        Black marker (not permanent)

·        Water

·        Coffee cup or sometime of cup

·        Clothespins

What do I do?

1-fold coffee filter in half and then in half again creating somewhat of a triangle.

a.                                            b.                                      c.

2-Fill cup with water.

3-Draw a black line about one inch from the point and draw designs about it on both sides of the coffee filter.

4-Put the pointed side of the coffee filter in the water.  You just need to put the tip in the water. Let the water soak all the way up the coffee filter.

5-Observe what is happening.

What’s Going On?

Most nonpermanent markers use inks that are made of colored pigments and water. On a coffee filter, the water in the ink carries the pigment onto the paper. When the ink dries, the pigment remains on the paper.

In this experiment, you're using a technique called chromatography. The name comes from the Greek words chroma and graph for "color writing." The technique was developed in 1910 by Russian botanist Mikhail Tsvet. He used it for separating the pigments that made up plant dyes.

There are many different types of chromatography. In all of them, a gas or liquid (like the water in your experiment) flows through a stationary substance (like your coffee filter). Since different ingredients in a mixture are carried along at different rates, they end up in different places. By examining where all the ingredients ended up, scientists can figure out what was combined to make the mixture.

Why does mixing many colors of ink make black?

Ink and paint get their colors by absorbing some of the colors in white light and reflecting others. Green ink looks green because it reflects the green part of white light and absorbs all the other colors. Red ink looks red because it reflects red light and absorbs all the other colors. When you mix green, red, blue, and yellow ink, each ink that you add absorbs more light. That leaves less light to reflect to your eye. Since the mixture absorbs light of many colors and reflects very little, you end up with black.

6-Open up your coffee filter and allow it to dry.  After it is dry take your clothespin and make it into a butterfly but gathering the middle and putting the clothespin around it.

Meg Graber

40.         The Stick-O-Meter

This is a fun activity to do with kids from first to about forth grade.  Have the students work in partners for this activity.  Kids know that their daily peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are sticky but how sticky are they???  And how should they be kept to preserve that stickiness??  Create a Stick-O-Meter to find out.

Materials:

1 Large plastic or foam cup (32 oz.)                Ruler

5 Foam cups (8 oz.)                                       String

Peanut Butter                                                Jelly

Aluminum Foil                                              Pennies

Plastic Wrap                                                  Tape

Spoon                                                          Pencil

4 Small Paper Plates                                                Honey

Paper Towels

1. Cover your work space with paper towels (to make clean up easier).  Set the big cup upside down on the paper towels and balance the ruler on top.
2. Make a handle for one of the smaller cups by taping the two ends of a piece of string and taping the ends to opposite sides of the cup near the rim.  Make sure the handle is long enough so that the cup touches the table when the handle is put over the balanced ruler.
3. Make a shorter handle for another small cup, and tape the string to the cup so that the cup will hang about 3 inches off the table when the handle is over the balanced ruler.
4. Now hang the two cups from opposite sides of the hanging ruler and tape the string to the ruler and place one of the paper plates under the cup with the long handle.
5. Using a spoon smear a layer of jelly onto the bottom of the long handled cup and push it onto the plate.  Place a pencil on top of the big cup under the center of the ruler.
6. Have one partner hold down the paper plate while the other begins to put pennies into the hanging cup, one at a time.  When the jelly cup pulls away from the plate count the number of pennies in the cup and record the number on the chart below
7. Now cover the plate with the foil.  Put the same amount of jelly on the cup as before and stick it to the foil.  Repeat step 6.
8. Now cover the plate with plastic wrap.  Put the same amount of jelly on the cup and stick it to the plastic wrap.  Repeat step 6.
9. Repeat steps 2,5 and 6 with the honey.
10. Now repeat steps 2, 5 and 6 with the peanut butter.

 Number of Pennies Jelly Peanut Butter Honey Paper Plate Aluminum Foil Plastic Wrap

1. Compare the results of your testing to find which sandwich is stickier, peanut butter and honey or peanut butter and jelly.
2.  Would it be better to take your sandwich to school wrapped in foil, plastic wrap or paper?

Casandra Campbell

41.                                      Science Report

“2-Point Discrimination Test”

Purpose:

For students to find out what areas of their bodies are most sensitive to touch? (ex. Hands, feet, thigh, forearm, etc.) To explore the difference in the degree of sensitivity the skin holds on different body parts.

Materials:

Toothpicks

Activity:

To find out what areas of the skin are more sensitive, have the students perform a 2-point discrimination exam of a friend.  Give each pair of student’s two toothpicks. Make sure the tips of the toothpicks are not too sharp, if so press the points against a hard surface to create a more blunt end on the pick.

Have the pairs of students begin taking turns testing different areas on each other.

THE TEST:

While one student is performing the test, the other student should be closing their eyes so they cannot see where the toothpicks are. Make sure the students don’t press too hard! The student performing the test on a body part will begin by touching the toothpick tips on the skin several inches apart and slowly work the picks closer together.  Make sure both tips touch the skin at the same time while moving them together. Have the student ask their partner if he or she felt 1 or 2 pressure points every time the picks move. If the student reported 1 point, spread the tips of the pick a bit further apart, and touch the previous point again. If the student reports 2 points have the partner open their eyes and see where their 2-Point Discrimination is on that body part.  Then have the students measure the distance at which the subject reports "I feel 2 points".  They will do this for all the body parts tested. After one student has performed the test, have the students switch roles.

TESTING AREAS:

Finger, lip, cheek, nose, palm, forehead, foot, belly, forearm, upper arm, back, shoulder, thigh, calf

Critical Thinking:

After the activity is finished you can have the students look at their data and determine what parts of the body are most sensitive? In other words, where on the body can 2 points be detected with the smallest tip separation?

The students will discover that the receptors in our skin are not distributed evenly on our bodies. Some places, like our fingers and lips, have more touch receptors than other parts of our body, like our backs. That is why we feel so much better with our fingers, than with our back.

*I found this activity on-line at

Neuroscience for Kids

http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chtouch.html

Jaime Sytsma

42.              Inside Out Bag

Materials:

1 jar

1 plastic bag, 1-quart or smaller

Instructions:

1. Open up a plastic bag and stick it into a jar.  Smoosh the bag against the sides of the jar, taking up as much

room as possible between the bag and the jar.

2. Fold the plastic bag outside over the lip of the jar and secure it with a rubber band.

3. Now, grab the center of the plastic bag and lift.  The bag will not come out of the jar, at least not without a lot

of effort.

Howcome:

Assuming you fastened the rubber band nice and tight, it will be difficult, if not impossible, for air to travel from

the outside the jar to the space between the plastic and the jar.  As you pull on the bag, you create more

space.  This means there are fewer air molecules per unit of space in the area between the bag and the jar.

There is a conflict between the air molecules outside the jar pushing in on the bag, and the air molecules

between the bag and jar pushing out. The more you pull the bag out, the less push there is from the air between

he bag and the jar.  At some point, even your strongest pull can't overcome the difference in air pressure

between the two sides of the bag.  Your bag is stuck.

Materials:

1 bucket of water

1 candle

1 old crayon

matches

Instructions:

1. Light the candle and ask the class what will happen when you hold a business card over the flame.  If

someone thinks the card won't burn, keep a close watch on that kid for the rest of the year.

2. Hold a business card just above the flame.  It should catch fire within a few seconds.

3. Place your pile of crayon shavings on top of a second card.  Ask the kids what will happen when you hold

this card over the flame.

4. Hold the card over the flame so the crayon shavings are directly above the flame.  In a short time, the

shavings will melt.  The business card won't even be scorched.  This might be a good time to caution the kids

against trying this without adult supervision.  No sense ruining your day with a burned-down house and a lawsuit

to boot.

Howcome:

In order for paper to burn, it has to reach a temperature of 451 degrees Fahrenheit.  Crayon melts at a lower

temperature than that.  In this demo, heat from the candle transfers to the paper, and heart from the paper

transfers to the crayon.  As the crayon melts, it absorbs heat from the paper just as fast as the paper absorbs

heat from the flame.  The paper never absorbs enough hear to reach 451 degrees, so it doesn't burn.

43.                Spider Gliders

Carmen Hall

# Conclusion: What we learned disproved our hypothesis

The teacher could then discuss force with the class. Force is an action, not a thing.  Force by one surface on another is called friction.  An object exerts a force on another object whenever the first object causes the second to accelerate.  Our second experience with the scientific method would be with this information and spider gliders that we are going to make.  We would show the students the spider glider that we made and ask the students to hypothesize about what will happen if the string that is through the straw exerts a force on the straw that is attached to the spider, what will happen?

Question: What will happen to the spider if the string that is through the straw on the spider exerts a force on the straw that is attached to the spider?

Hypothesis: The spider will move.

Observation: The students have to make the spider to see that this is true.

Conclusion: Our observations proved our hypothesis true.

Materials for Spider Gliders: construction paper, scissors, 5 yards of string per spider, masking tape, 1 straw per spider, 4 pipe cleaners per spider, crayons or markers.

Directions for Spider Gliders:  Fold paper in half, draw half of each segment of body of spider (remember we learned a spider only has 2 body parts- the head and abdomen,) cut out body, unfold, decorate, cut straw in half to fit in the abdomen area, tape the straw to the back of the spider, bend pipe cleaner for legs, tape legs to body of spider, cut leftover straw in half, pull the string through the straw on the glider (so two ends are at bottom of spider and loop is at the head of the spider,) tape small straw pieces to ends of string, tape middle loop of string high on a wall or in a doorway, now test it- pull the two ends of the string apart and watch it climb.

# Amber Vasquez

## 44.Cloud in a Bottle

Materials Needed:

·        1 Clear plastic 2-liter soda bottle (remove label)

·        1 Sheet black construction paper

·        Hot water

·        Matches (Be sure to have adult supervision)

Instructions:

·        Pour 2 inches of very hot tap water into the 2-liter bottle

·        Place your mouth over the opening and blow into it to ensure the bottle is fully expanded. Immediately seal the bottle tightly.

·        Shake the bottle vigorously for one minute. This will distribute water molecules in the air.

·        With adult supervision, light a match. Let it burn for two seconds, then drop it into the bottle. Quickly recap the bottle.

·        Lay the bottle on its side with the black paper behind it. Press hard on the bottle for ten seconds. The bottle is strong, so don’t be afraid to really push hard. Release, observe, and repeat until cloud forms.

·        When the cloud has formed, quickly unscrew the cap. You should see the cloud escape from the bottle. If not, give the bottle a light squeeze.

Scientific Principle:

By following the steps, you have created the conditions necessary for cloud formation: water vapor in the air, smoke particles for water to collect on, and cooling of the air by lowering the air pressure within the bottle. Voila! Instant cloud formation. Clouds form when condensation collects dust particles, which you provided with the smoke from the match.

Information on Air pressure:

Air pressure is the force exerted on you by the weight of tiny particles of air molecules. Although air molecules are invisible, they still have weight and take up space. Since there’s a lot of “empty” space between air molecules, air can be compressed to fit in a smaller volume.

How to measure weather:

Weather forecasters measure air pressure with a barometer. Barometers are used to measure the current air pressure at a particular location in “inches of mercury” or in “millibars” (mb). A measurement of 29.92 inches of mercury is equivalent to 1013.25 millibars.

45.                The Human Vacuum Cleaner

Subject: Atmospheric Pressure

Material:

-                     Shop Vac or any vac with a hose for suction (keep the vac under 5 horse power)

-                     39 gallon or larger plastic garbage bags

Procedure:

1. Have a student climb into the plastic bag and sit down so the bag is up around their neck, but never over their head.
2. Now place the open hose in the bag and ask the student to hold the end.  Next bring the bag together at the opening and form as good of a seal as possible.  The student must understand that when the vac is turned on, they must keep the end open while keeping both the bag and their clothing from being sucked into the opening.  (If the bag does not collapse around the student, it usually means they have allowed the opening to become covered.)

NOTE:  As the bag collapses around the student, it canb e very revealing, so do not do this standing up.  Rather, have the pressure create a ball of the student.

Understanding:

-                     As the bag collapses, having part of the air inside the bag removed, the student will start to experience atmospheric pressure pushing in on them.

-                     The ideas that the atmosphere has mass and applies pressure is very difficult for younger students to understand.  By removing a portion of this pressure, a student can experience a little of atmospheric pressure first hand.  A fun extension of upper level classes would be to have students actually calculate the force being applied by the vac.

46.             MAKING A COMPASS

Jojo Liu

Area of Science:  Earth Science

Overview:

This activity allows the children to construct a simple compass in order to locate magnetic north, or south, depending on where we live.

Materials Needed:

1. Sewing needle-1 inch
2. Small bar magnet.  Refrigerator magnets are also usable.
3. A small piece of cork or a piece of corkboard to act as a floatation device.
4. A small glass or cup of water to float the needle and cork in.
5. A compass.

Directions:

1. Take the sewing needle and run it across the magnet a few times in the same direction.  This allows the iron (the sewing needle) to magnetize and work as a compass.
2. Take the magnetize needle and tape it down to the cork making sure there is equal distance of needle sticking out from both directions.
3. Fill the cup with water and set it down on a flat surface table.
4. Float the cork and the needle in the cup of water so the needle is floating parallel to the surface of the water.
5. Watch your ‘compass’ move as it finds the Earth’s magnetic pole-north or south.
6. Place the compass next to your ‘compass’ and watch both compass align in the same direction.  Make sure the magnet is no where near both compasses in order for the compass to work correctly.

Explanation of Activity:

The earth produces a magnetic field.  The compass aligns with the magnetic pole-north or south giving you a sense of where you are.  In this experiment, we will actually construct a compass out of a needle and a cork.  It is very important to have the cork and needle float and rotate freely.  This allows the needle and cork to find the earth’s magnetic field and this is what a real compass does.

47.        Student Report: Milky Magic

By: Carrie Visscher

Materials Needed:

1 cup whole homogenized milk

Pie plate

Blue food coloring (or any color you wish to use)

1 tablespoon liquid Palmolive soap

Step 1:

Pour the milk into the pie plate.  It should be about ½ inch deep.

Step 2:

Add drops of food coloring to several places on the surface of the milk.

Step 3:

Add the dish soap to the center of the milk.

Step 4:

Wait a few moments, and then watch what happens.

Observations:

The soap causes the milk and food coloring to mix, creating swirls of colors in the milk.  This continues for a couple of minutes.

Conclusion:

The milk that was used in homogenized, meaning that the fat in it has been made very fine and spread evenly throughout the milk.  When the food coloring is added, at first nothing happens.  The food coloring just stays where you put it.  But, when you add the soap, the soap spreads out.  Soap particles are polar molecules.  One end of the particle has a negative charge and the other end has a positive charge.  Since opposite charges attract, the positive end of the soap particle is attracted to negatively charged parts of the fat particles in the milk.  The soap particles link to the fat particles in the milk and spread the fat particles around.  As the fat particles move, they move the food coloring also.  This movement causes the food coloring to mix with the white milk, resulting in swirls of color.

Source:

Magic Science By: Jim Wiese

Myrna Ingelmo (1)

48.             Making a Circuit

What is a Circuit?

In order to flow, electricity has to have someplace to go.  When we set up a

situation so that the electricity can flow around in a circle, we call that circle of

wire a "circuit."  When a bulb is put into a complete circuit, the electricity will light

up the bulb.

Make a Circuit

Materials:

*size D battery

*tiny bulb

*wire or rolled strips of aluminum foil

Arrange battery, rolled strips of aluminum, or wire, and bulb.  The light bulb

should be on the top of the positive side of the battery.  The rolled strips of

aluminum, or wire, should be touching the center of the bottom, the negative

side, of the battery.  The other side of the strip should be touching the tiny bulb.

The bulb will then light.  If you have trouble getting the bulb to light up, check to

make sure that the wire is touching the electrodes on the bulb.

Try this arrangement

Place the battery in an upward position.  Place the rolled strip of aluminum foil, or

wire, on the top center of the positive side of the battery.  On the side of the

middle of the battery place the bulb and on top of the bulb place the other side of

the rolled strip of aluminum foil, or wire.  The bulb won't light up with this

arrangement because the wire and the battery are not in contact with the

electrodes on the bulb.  There is no way for the electricity to flow through the

bulb.

Caution:  Never make a circuit without a bulb in it.  When there is nothing in a circuit to slow

down the current, it gets going too fast and heats up the wire.  This is called a "short circuit."

Disconnect any wire if it feels hot.  Water can also cause current to flow too fast.  Keep water

away from your batteries and circuits.

Myrna Ingelmo (2)

49.              Where Does a Magnet Work?

Materials

*paper clips

*magnets

*Items to be tested (paper, plastic, cup of water, aluminum foil, tabletop).

Do you think that the force of magnetism can go through something

solid?

Could a magnetic force go through some materials and not others?

Make your predictions first.  Do you think magnets will work...

through paper? Yes___    No___

through wood?  Yes___    No___

through glass?   Yes___   No___

through metal?   Yes___   No___

through plastic?  Yes___   No___

through water?    Yes___   No___

Hold your magnet on one side of a piece of paper.  Lay a paper clip on the other

side.  Does the magnet attract the clip through the paper?

Follow the same steps with the rest of the materials:  Did the magnet work

through...

paper     Yes___      No___

wood      Yes___      No___

glass      Yes___      No___

metal      Yes___      No___

plastic    Yes___      No___

water      Yes___      No___

Does the thickness of the material matter?

Kendra Smart

50.       Alka-Seltzer Rockets

***number 1 hint***   don’t pass out alka-seltzer tablets until you are completely done explaining your lesson

This is extremely fun, loud, and an entertaining lab!!  Your 4th – 6th graders will love this.  (Be careful, because the film canister pops off into the air and comes back down - there is the chance of getting hit in the head.)

Needed:

1.  Film canisters where the lids fit inside the canister shaft.

2.  Warm water is best, but works with all temperature ranges.

3.  Alka-seltzer tablets.  (broken into 4th’s)

Directions:

1.  Go outside with all necessary elements.

2.  Fill the film canister half full with warm water.

3.  Place a 4th of the tablet into water.

4.  Put lid on.

5.  Quickly, turn upside down.

6.  Back away.  (water will shoot out & the canister pops up)

Relation to Science:

At each point of the experiment, the teacher can talk about the different forms of energy that are being used.  (Gravitational, Kinetic, Thermal, Elastic, Electric, Radiant, Chemical, and Nuclear)  Now only some of these will be used, but it is important to have the kids try and guess what it is that is occurring during their rocket launches.

Beyond the energy aspect, it is important to tell your students about the chemical reaction that is taking place as well.

Have fun!!!!  Hope you all enjoy this experiment!!!

51.      Powerful Push-Up

Candice Blake

Materials:

• 1 cup (plastic or glass)
• 1 postcard

Instructions:

First, fill the cup with water.  Make sure the cup is somewhat overflowing.  Next, place the postcard on top of the cup.  When the postcard is secure, tip the cup upside down.  The postcard should remain in place, and keep the water from coming out of the cup.

Conclusions & Connections:

Prior to this experiment, the students should be introduced to the concept of air pressure.  It should be made clear that air pushes in all directions.  This is what’s occurring in the experiment.  Air can push upwards from the Earth as well as downward.  In this particular experiment, the air pushing upward from the ground is pushing the postcard tightly against the cup.  The pressure exerted by the air is much stronger than the pressure of the water attempting to push itself out of the cup.  This is why the water is unable to break the force of the postcard.

# 52.Dancing Coin

Candice Blake

Materials:

• 1 glass bottle
• 1 quarter

Instructions:

First, wet the rim of the quarter, as well as the rim, or opening, of the glass bottle.  Then, place the quarter on top of the opening of the bottle.  Next, with both hands, grip the body of the bottle tightly.  After waiting a minute or so, the quarter should lightly lift/dance.

Conclusions & Connections:

Prior to this experiment, the students should be informed of issues regarding the heating and cooling of air particles.  The experiment is intended to show the effects of the heating of air.  By placing your hands around the bottle, you are heating the air that is present within the bottle.  If the students are aware that when air is heated it expands, then they will understand that the heated air within the bottle is expanding or attempting to get out.  In its efforts to do so, the quarter is being lifted to let some of the expanding air out.  This experiment can work with a plastic bottle as well, but as most of us know, glass is a better conductor of heat.

Candice Blake

Materials:

• Wire hanger
• Piece of string (3 feet in length)

Instructions:

First, tie a knot in the string around the top loop of the wire hanger.  Be sure that there is a relatively even amount of string on each side of the knot.  Have the students wrap several loops of one side of the string to one of their index fingers.  Have them do the same with the other side of the string and the other index finger.  Allow the students swing the hanger into a wall or the leg of a chair or table.  Make sure that they are clearly observing the sound the hanger makes when this occurs.  Next, have the students cover their ears with their hands, keeping the string looped around their index fingers.  Have the students lean over and again swing the hanger into a wall or leg of a chair or table.  Have them closely observe this sound.  The sound should be much deeper and more harmonious when listening with their hands over their ears.

Conclusions & Connections:

The students should be lectured on the travel of sound prior to this experiment.  The different ways of sound travel should be compared and contrasted in order to establish an understanding of which ways of travel are most beneficial.  The experiment is intended to show two ways of sound travel.  The first time the students bang the hanger against the wall they are observing a very bland sound.  This is because the sound has to travel from the string, through the air, and then to the ears.  This route makes the sound more difficult to hear in full.  When the students hear the sound of the hanger with their hands over their ears, they are hearing a much different sound due to the direct route of sound.  In this instance, the sound is traveling straight from the string, through the hands, and then to the ears.  The change in sound is intended to show how sound travels more efficiently through solids as opposed to air.

54.       MAGNETS THROUGH AIR, WATER AND SOLIDS

##### BY

LUCIA SOLTERO

MATERIALS: MAGNETS, METAL PAPER CLIPS, WATER, PAPER AND STRING.

MEGNETS CAN ATTRACT MAGNETIC MATERIAL EVEN WHEN THERE ARE CERTAIN GLASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLIDS BETWEEN THE MAGNET AND THE MATERIAL.

1. TIE THE  STRING TO THE PAPER CLIP
2. HOLD THE STRING WHILE MOVING THE MAGNET CLOSER TO THE PAPER CLIP.

MAGNETISM THROUGH LIQUID

1. FILL A LARGE BOWL ½ FULL WITH WATER
2. HOLD STRING AND MAGNET INSIDE THE WATER AND MOVE MAGNET CLOSER TO THE PAPER CLIP.

MAGNETISM THROUGH A SOLID

1. HOLD A PIECE OF PAPER BETWEEN THE MAGNET AND THE PAPER CLIP.
2. GET MAGENT CLOSER TO THE PAPER CLIP.

55.            Aerodynamics

Randi Lee

Aerodynamics is the science that studies what happens when air or any gas is moving.   The name aerodynamics comes from two Greek words meaning “air” and “power”.

Purpose:

Make an airplane without wings.

Materials:

• scissors
• ruler
• 3-x-5-inch index cards
• clear plastic tape
• plastic straws

1)      Cut an index card the long way into three equal strips.

2)      Put a piece of tape on the end of one strip. Curl the paper into a little hoop and tape the ends together.

3)      Put the other two strips end to end, so they overlap a little. Tape them together to make one long strip, and put another piece of tape on one end. Curl the strip into a hoop and tape the ends together.

4)      Put one end of a straw onto the middle of a strip of tape. Put the big hoop on top of the straw and fold the tape up the sides of the hoop.

5)      Put another strip of tape at the other end of the straw. Press the small hoop very gently onto the tape. Move it around until it lines up with the big hoop, then press the tape down firmly.

6)      Hold the glider in the middle of the straw, with the little hoop in front. Throw it out like a spear.

Explanation:

The air passes through the hoops and creates a lift that allows the glider to glide through the air.  The air travels faster above the circular wing and has less pressure in the above. The air moves slower inside the hoops and has more pressure.

Ayami Sato

56.             The Fly Ball Game

materials:

-small cups

-pingpong balls

-tape

instructions:

1) put a ball inside one cup and blow air through the top of the cup as if your trying

make music from a coke bottle.

2) practice for a few minutes and try to make the ball fly outward.

3) set up three cups aside from the one you are blowing on.

4) set them up in a straight line, one in front of the other.

5) tape the three cups onto the table.

6) make sure that your blowing cup is one cup space away from the three cups.

7) label the first cup 10pts, the second cup 20 pts, and the third cup 30pts.

8) now with three tries, try to make the most points to win.

explanation:

As you blow fast air through the top of the cup the pressure changes into low pressure.

The ball gets caught in the low pressure and pops out of the cup.

57.      Making Waves

#### Tegan Murdock

Objective:

To show how waves move and change.

Materials:

- Clear plastic soda bottle with cap (2 liter is preferable, but 1 liter works)

- Food coloring (Blue or green, although any color works)

- colorless vegetable oil

- water

- a small funnel

- glitter, metal confetti, or small trinkets (optional)

Directions:

1. Take a clean, clear two liter bottle and fill it half-way with water. Add about four drops of food coloring. The more you add, the darker the water will be. Confetti or glitter can be added a pinch at a time.

2. Use the funnel to fill the bottle the rest of the way to the top with vegetable oil. *WARNING* Be careful filling the bottle as vegetable oil is very difficult to clean up.

3. Once bottle is filled, screw the lid back on. For a permanent seal, use a little glue on the threads before closing.

4. Turn the bottle on its side and start “Making Waves”!

*Note: If the line between the water and oil is fuzzy or cloudy, allow the bottle to sit for a few minutes to let the oil to settle.

Source: Soupy Science <http://www.ktca.org/donnasday/creative/activ21.html>

## 58.                     MAGNETISM

This activity consists of using different metals and magnets to show that not all metals attract magnets.

Materials:

Magnets

Coins-penny, nickel, dime, quarter

Safety pin

###### Key

Aluminum foil ball

Paper clips

Staples

Jar lid

Utensils

Scissors

Hair pins

Thumb tacks

Battery

Rings-gold, platinum, silver

Results:

Don’t Attract:                                                                                                       Rings-gold, platinum, silver

Coins-penny, nickel, dime, quarter

Aluminum foil ball

Key

Do Attract:

Paper clips

Staples

Jar lid

Utensils

Scissors

Hair pins

Thumb tacks

Battery

Safety pin

## 59.                        BALANCE

This activity consists of two parts: 1) balancing pennies on a metric ruler in order to find the changing center of gravity by placing pennies on the ruler and moving your finger accordingly.  2) keeping the center of gravity directly over your finger by moving different numbers of pennies along the ruler.

Materials:

Metric ruler (wood or stiff plastic)

Pennies

Pencil

Paper

Activity 1

1.    Make a chart consisting of two columns (number of pennies and finger position) and seven rows (0-6).

2.    Find the place where your finger needs to be so that the ruler is perfectly balanced.  Record that number in your chart under 0 pennies.

3.    Work with a partner to place one penny exactly on the 1cm mark of the ruler.

4.    Move your finger so that the ruler is balanced again.  Look to see exactly where your finger is on the ruler.  Record that number in your chart under 1.

5.    Place another penny on top of the first and find the spot where your finger perfectly balances the ruler.  Record this number in your chart under 2.

6.    Have students predict where their finger needs to be positioned to balance the ruler using 3, 4, 5, and 6 pennies.  Have students try 3, 4, 5, and 6 pennies and record their findings in the chart.

Activity 2

1.    Make a chart with two columns (number of pennies and position of penny stack) and seven rows (1-7).

2.    Do step 2 in Activity 1.

3.    Work with a partner to place one penny exactly on the 1cm mark on the ruler.  This is your “balance penny”.  You will not move this penny or your finger for the rest of the activity.  Place another penny on the opposite end of the ruler from the balance penny.  Move this penny until the ruler is perfectly balanced.  Record the position of the penny in the chart under 1.

4.    Have students continue to place 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 pennies on top of the first penny to find the position of the penny stack that balances the ruler.  Record positions of penny stack with 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 pennies in the chart.

Students can make graphs of their findings for Activity 1 and 2.

Marlene Portillo (1)

60.                           JUMPING RICE

Key science topic:  attractive and repulsive forces, static electricity

Key process skills:  observing and investigating

Time required: setup- 15 minutes

performance- 15 minutes

cleanup- 5 minutes

Materials:  (per student or learning center)

Paper plate, balloon, and small cup of oven toasted rice cereal (rice krispies)

Procedure:  Have the students first experiment with charging their balloons by rubbing the balloon on their heads or on wool cloth.  Let the students observe the attractive and repulsive forces.  Second, have the students empty the cup of rice krispies onto their paper plates and ask them to charge their balloons so they can attract the rice krispies to their balloons.  Let the students observe the jumping rice and explain to them that they are witnessing static electricity.