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CODEBOOK: U.S. Senate Data (senate.sav)      

Members of the U.S. Senate as of the convening of the 113th Congress on January 3, 2013 (N=100).

This file contqains all of the data from the states file (states.sav) (including some state policy and finaacial variables that may be of limited relevance for study of the U.S. Senate), along with data on senate members.

Missing Data: sysmis (all variables)

Variable Name/Variable Label

state: State name (full name)
stateabr: State name (postal code abbreviation)
stcode: State code
region: Region of country
pop2000: Population, July 1., 2000
pop2011: Population, July 1, 2011
white: Percent of population that is non-Hispanic white
black: Percent of population that is non-Hispanic African American
latino: Percent of population that is Hispanic
asian: Percent of population that is non-Hispanic Asian American
other: Percent of population that is non-Hispanic of other race
multiple: Percent of population that is non-Hispanic of more than onerace
ownocc: Percent of occupied housing units that are owner occupied
singunit: Percent of occupied housing units that are single-unit (excluding mobile homes, boata, RVs, etc.)
medianhs: Median value, owner occupied housing
married: Percent of households that include a married couple
femchild: Percent of family households w female householder, with own children under age 18, no husband present
noneng: Percent of population 5 years of age and older for whom the language spoken at home is other than English
natcit: Percent of population that is naturalized U.S. citizen
notcit: Percent of population that is not U.S. citizen
educpc: K-12 current spending per capita
educpstu: K-12 current spending per student
educinc: K-12 current spending per $1,000 of personal income
teachers: Public elementary and secondary school teachers' average salaries ($1,000s)
highsch: Percent of population 25 years and older with a least a high school education
college: Percent of population 25 years and older with a college degree
dropouts: High school dropout rate
pcincome: Per capita income
cost: Cost of living index
poverty: Percent of population below poverty line
unemploy: Percent unemployed
uninsure: Percent without health insurance
adult: Percent of population age 18 or older
elder: Percent of population age 65 or older
infant: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births
crime: Violent crimes per 100,000 population
fedaid: Federal aid to state and local governments per capita
energy: Energy consumption per capita, millions of BTUs
revpercp: State and local tax revenue per capita
revinc: State and local tax revenue as percent of personal income
toptax: Top marginal effective federal, state and local tax rate on wages
leg: Party control of state legislature
gov: Party control of governorship
pid: Party ID score of state residents (0 = most Democratic possible; 100 = most Republican possible)
ideo: Ideology score of state residents (0 = most liberal possible; 100 = most conservative possible)
policy: State policy score (0 = most conservative state; 100 = most liberal state)
obama12: Votes for Barack Obama in 2012 presidential election
romney12: Votes for Mitt Romney in 2012 presidential election
other12: Votes for other candidates in 2012 presidential election
tout12: Percent of voting eligible population casting votes for president in 2012 general election
name: Member's name
party: Member's party
gender: Member's gender
ethnic: Member's ethnicity
dwnom: Member's DW-NOMINATE score, 2011-2012
acu11: Member's ACU (conservatism) score, 2011
acu12: Member's ACU (conservatism) score, 2012
ada11: Member's ADA (liberalism) score, 2011
ada12: Member's ADA (liberalism) score, 2012
unity11: Member's CQ party unity score, 2011
unity12: Member's CQ party unity score, 2012

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state State Name (full name)

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stateabr State Name (2-digit postal abbreviation)

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stcode State Code (using Bureau of Census regional classifications)

          63    Alabama     73    Louisiana         72    Oklahoma
          94    Alaska      11    Maine             92    Oregon
          87    Arizona     52    Maryland          23    Pennsylvania
          71    Arkansas    14    Massachusetts     16    Rhode Island
          93    California  34    Michigan          57    South Carolina
          86    Colorado    41    Minnesota         45    South Dakota
          15    Connecticut 64    Mississippi       62    Tennessee
          51    Delaware    43    Missouri          74    Texas
          59    Florida     81    Montana           85    Utah
          58    Georgia     46    Nebraska          12    Vermont
          95    Hawaii      84    Nevada            54    Virginia
          82    Idaho       13    New Hampshire     91    Washington
          32    Illinois    22    New Jersey        53    West Virginia
          33    Indiana     88    New Mexico        31    Wisconsin
          42    Iowa        21    New York          83    Wyoming
          47    Kansas      56    North Carolina
          61    Kentucky    44    North Dakota
          35    Ohio

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region Region of Country

          1     Northeast (STCODE: 11-16, 21-23, 51)
          2     Midwest (STCODE: 31-35, 41,42,44
          3     South (STCODE: 43, 52-54,56-59,61-64,71-74)
          4     West (STCODE: 81-88, 91-95)

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pop2000 Estimated Population, July 1, 2000.  Source: Bureau of the Census, “2006 Population Estimates.”  http://www.census.gov.  Accessed July 3, 2007.

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pop2011 Estimated Population, 2011. 

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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white Percent of population that is non-Hispanic white

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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black Percent of population that is non-Hispanic African American

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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latino Percent of population that is Hispanic

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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asian Percent of population that is non-Hispanic Asian American or Pacific Islander

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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native Percent of population that is non-Hispanic Native American or Alaskan Native

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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other Percent of population that is non-Hispanic of other race

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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multiple Percent of population that is non-Hispanic of more than one race

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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ownocc Percent of occupied housing units that are owner occupied

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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singunit Percent of all housing that is single-unit (excluding mobile homes, boats, RVs, etc.)

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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medianhs Median value, owner occupied housing

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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married Percent of households that include a married couple

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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femchild Percent of family households w female householder, with own children under age 18, no husband present

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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noneng Percent of population 5 years of age and older for whom the language spoken at home is other than English

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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natcit Percent of population that is naturalized US citizen

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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notcit Percent of population that is not citizen

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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educpc K-12 current spending per capita, 2009-2010.  Source: Derived from Bureau of the Census, “Public School Finance Data: Public Elementary–Secondary Education Finance Data.”  http://www.census.gov.  Population estimates are as of 2009. Accessed November 10, 2012.

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educpstu K-12 current spending per student, 2009-2010.  Source: Bureau of the Census, “Public School Finance Data: Public Elementary–Secondary Education Finance Data.”  http://www.census.gov.  Accessed November 10, 2012.

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educinc K-12 current spending per $1,000 of personal income, 2009-2010.  Source: Bureau of the Census, “Public School Finance Data: Public Elementary–Secondary Education Finance Data.”  http://www.census.gov.  Accessed November 10, 2012.

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teachers  Public elementary and secondary school teachers’ average salaries, in thousands of $, 2009. Source: Bureau of the Census, “2012 Statistical Abstract of the United States.”  http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 29, 2012.  

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highsch Percent of population 25 and older with at least a high school education. Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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college Percent of population 25 and older with college degree. Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012.

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dropouts High school dropout rate, 2008-2009. Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Digest of Education Statistics.” http://http://nces.ed.gov/ Accessed November 9, 2012.  

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pcincome Per capita income

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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cost Cost of living index, 2007 (median = 100)

Source: Berry-Fording-Hanson state cost of living index. The methodology they employed to produce the index used here was revised from that described in Berry, William D., Richard C. Fording and Russell L. Hanson, “An Annual Cost of Living Index for the American States, 1960-95,” Journal of Politics, vol. 60, no. 2, May 2000: 550-67.” http://mailer.fsu.edu/~wberry/garnet-wberry/a.html. Accessed November 9, 2012. 

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poverty Percent of population below poverty line

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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unemploy Percent unemployed. 

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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uninsure Percent without health insurance, 2009. 

Source: Bureau of the Census, “Source: Bureau of the Census, “2012 Statistical Abstract of the United States.http://www.census.gov.  Accessed November 8, 2012. 

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adult Percent of population age 18 or older

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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elder Percent of population age 65 or older

Source: Bureau of the Census, “2011 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates.” http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 22-24, 2012. 

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infant Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births, 2006.  Source: Bureau of the Census, “2012 Statistical Abstract of the United States: State Rankings.”  http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 29, 2012.

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crime Violent crimes per 100,000 population, 2009.  Source: Bureau of the Census, “2012 Statistical Abstract of the United States.”  http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 29, 2012.

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fedaid Federal aid to state and local governments per capita, 2007.  Source: Bureau of the Census, “2012 Statistical Abstract of the United States: State Rankings.”  http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 31, 2012.

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energy Energy consumption per capita, millions of BTUs, 2007.  Source: Bureau of the Census, “2012 Statistical Abstract of the United States: State Rankings.”  http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 29, 2012.

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revpercp State and local tax revenue per capita, 2007-8. (Population estimates are as of July 1, 2008.) Source: derived from Bureau of the Census, “2012 Statistical Abstract of the United States.”  http://www.census.gov.  Accessed October 29, 2012.

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revinc State and local tax revenue as a percent of personal income, 2007-2008. Sources: derived from Bureau of the Census, “2012 Statistical Abstract of the United States.” http://www.census.gov; Bureau of Economic Analysis, "Regional Economic Accounts." http://www.bea.gov.   Accessed October 29, 2012.

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toptax Top marginal effective federal, state, and local tax rate on wages, 2012. Source: Gerald T. Prante and Austin John, "Top Marginal Effective Tax Rates by State and by Source of Income, 2012 Tax Law vs. 2013 Scheduled Tax Law." (November 15, 2012). http://ssrn.com/abstract=2176526 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2176526.  Accessed December 17, 2012.

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leg Party control of state legislature after Nov. 6, 2012 elections Source: National Conference of State Legislatures, "2012 Live Election Night Coverage of State Legislative Races," http://www.ncsl.org Accessed November 10, 2012.

         1. Democrat
         2. Republican
         3. Split
         4. Nonpartisan (Nebraska)

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gov Party control of governorship after Nov. 6, 2012 elections Source: National Conference of State Legislatures, "2012 Live Election Night Results: Governors," http://www.ncsl.org Accessed November 10, 2012.

         1. Democrat
         2. Republican
         3. Independent/Other

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pid  Party identification score of state residents, 1999-2003. Scores are weighted by number of respondents in the state surveyed in each year. Source: Derived from analysis of CBS/New York Times polls by Gerald C. Wright et al. http://php.indiana.edu/~wright1/. Accessed July 3, 2007. The measure used here has been scaled so that a (hypothetical) state with no self-identified Republicans would have a score of 0 and a (hypothetical) state with no self-identified Democrats would have a score of 100.

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ideo Ideology score of state residents, 1999-2003, where 0 = most liberal possible, and 100 = most conservative possible. Scores are weighted by number of respondents in the state surveyed in each year. Source: Derived from analysis of CBS/New York Times polls by Gerald C. Wright et al. http://php.indiana.edu/~wright1/. Accessed July 3, 2007. The measure used here has been scaled so that a (hypothetical) state with no self-identified conservatives would have a score of 0 and a (hypothetical) state with no self-identified liberalswould have a score of 100.

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policy State policy score (2008). A composite measure of policy liberalism based on various state policies. Source: Derived from Jason Sorens and William P. Ruger, "State and Local Public Policies in the United States." http://www.statepolicyindex.com/. The original measure is described in Jason Sorens, Fait Muedini, and William P. Ruger (2008). “U.S. State and Local Public Policies in 2006: A New Database.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 8 (3): 309-26(available through JStor). The measure used here has been scaled so that 0 = the state with the most conservative policies and 100 = the state with the most liberal policies.

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obama12 Votes for Barack Obama in 2012 presidential election. Source: Wikipedia, "United States Presidential Election, 2012" (preliminary results). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election_2012  Accessed November 13, 2012.

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romney12 Votes for Mitt Romney in 2012 presidential election. Source: Wikipedia, "United States Presidential Election, 2012" (preliminary results). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election_2012  Accessed November 13, 2012.

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other12 Votes for other candidates in 2012 presidential election. Source: Wikipedia, "United States Presidential Election, 2012" (preliminary results). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election_2012  Accessed November 13, 2012.

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tout12 Percent of voting eligible population (citizens of voting age who have not lost the right to vote due to crime or mental incapacity) casting votes for president in 2012 general election. Source: Michael P. McDonald. "2012 General Election Turnout Rates." (updated March 25, 2013) United States Elections Project. http://elections.gmu.edu/Turnout_2012G.html. Accessed April 29, 2013.  

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name      Member’s name


party     Member’s party

          1     Democrat
          2     Republican
          3     Independent   

Note:  Sanders (Vermont) and King (Maine) were elected as independents, and are coded as such, but caucus with the Democrats.       


gender    Member’s gender  

          1     Male
          2     Female


ethnic    Member’s ethnicity

          1     Non-Hispanic White
          2     African American
          3     Latino
          4     Asian and Pacific Islander
          5     Native American


dwnom      DW-NOMINATE score, first principle component, 112th Congress (2011-2012).  With rare exceptions, scores vary from +1 (most conservative) to -1 (most liberal).  Source: Royce Carroll, et al., “DW-NOMINATE Scores the Bootstrapped Standard Errors,” VoteView. http://voteview.com/. Accessed February 24, 2013.   

-9 (Missing Data): Not yet a member of the senate or did not cast enough votes to be rated. Schatz (D, HI) did not participate in enough votes to be rated.


acu11    American Conservative Union rating (2011).  Source: “ACU Ratings of Congress,” http://www.acuratings.org/  Accessed March 20, 2013. 

-9 (Missing Data): Not yet a member of the senate or did not cast enough votes to be rated.


acu12    American Conservative Union rating (2012).  Source: “ACU Ratings of Congress,” http://www.acuratings.org/  Accessed March 20, 2013. 

-9 (Missing Data): Not yet a member of the senate or did not cast enough votes to be rated. Kirk (R, IL) suffered a stroke in January 2012 and did not participate in roll calls that year. Schatz (D, HI) did not participate in enough votes in 2012 to be rated.


ada11    Americans for Democratic Action rating (2011).  Source: “2011 Congressional Voting Record Inside,”  http://www.adaction.org/pages/publications/voting-records.php. Accessed April 29, 2013.

-9 (Missing Data): Not yet a member of the senate or did not cast enough votes to be rated. Heller (R, NV) was sworn in on May 9, 2011, and did not participate in enough votes to be rated that year by the ADA.


ada12    Americans for Democratic Action rating (2012).  Source: “2012 Congressional Voting Record,” http://www.adaction.org/media/2012%20ADA%20Voting%20Record%20FINAL.pdf. Accessed May 15, 2013. 

-9 (Missing Data): Not yet a member of the senate or did not cast enough votes to be rated. Kirk (R, IL) suffered a stroke in January 2012 and did not participate in roll calls that year. Schatz (D, HI) did not participate in enough votes in 2012 to be rated.


unity11    Congressional Quarterly party unity score (2011): percent voting with own party when majority of Democrats oppose majority of Republicans.  Source: Congressional Quarterly Weekly (January 16, 2012): 119.  

-9 (Missing Data): Not yet a member of the senate or did not cast enough votes to be rated.

Note: Sanders (I, Vermont) is treated as a Democrat for purposes of this variable.


unity12    Congressional Quarterly party unity score (2012): percent voting with own party when majority of Democrats oppose majority of Republicans.  Source: Congressional Quarterly Weekly (January 21, 2013): 139.

-9 (Missing Data): Not yet a member of the senate or did not cast enough votes to be rated. Kirk (R, IL) suffered a stroke in January 2012 and did not participate in roll calls that year. Schatz (D, HI) did not participate in enough votes in 2012 to be rated.

Note: Sanders (I, Vermont) is treated as a Democrat for purposes of this variable. 

 


Last updated May 15, 2013 .
© 2003---2013  John L. Korey.  Licensed under a  Description: Creative Commons License Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.