ABSTRACTS


The Effect of Self-Managing Teams on Manager Commitment and Organizational Tenure in Private Clubs

Edward A. Merritt
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
 
Dennis E. Reynolds
Cornell University

Due to the time, effort, and cost involved in developing self-managing teams, an empirical study of developing such teams in the private club industry was conducted. The goal was to help determine whether differences exist, in terms of organizational tenure and commitment, between managers who use self-managing teams and managers who use traditionally managed teams. Findings suggest that managers who use self-managing teams are more committed to the private club industry than managers who use traditionally managed teams, and that managers who use self-managing teams enjoy increased organizational tenure over managers who do not use them.

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Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Among Adolescents in General and Special Education

Melinda R. Pierson
California State University, Fullerton
 
Leah J. Edwards
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

Using the Lonliness and Social Dissatisfaction Questionnaire (Asher & Wheeler, 1985), significant differences were found for loneliness and social dissatisfaction among four groups of adolescents based on class placement and rank within placement. Results indicated that general education students were significantly less lonely than special day class students. In addition, the low-achieving group of adolescents was significantly lonelier and socially dissatisfied than the high-achieving group. Research must now focus on effective interventions for specific groups of adolescents who are at higher risk for feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction.

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Developing a Market Niche for U.S. Agribusiness in Northeast China Using A Private-Public Relationship

James M. Weidman
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
 
Shirely Bryant
CEO, The Bryant Company International

This article provides a methodology to develop agricultural market niches to facilitate trade and investments that will expand sales of U.S. agricultural products to China. It represents applied agribusiness research to increase U.S. foreign agricultural sales. An important element is training workshops designed to provide market information and build business relationships, "quanxi", between Chinese officials and entrepreneurs and U.S. agribusinesses. The project, with the emerging economic development and market needs of China in mind, commences with Angus cattle breeding materials (embryos, etc.) and corn products. The research is funded by the USDA's Foreign Agricultural Service and California's Agricultural Research Initiative.

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Steinbeck and Censorship

Robert E. Morsberger
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

In 2002, Steinbeck's centennial year, everyone in California was urged to read The Grapes of Wrath, libraries throughout the state were having programs on Steinbeck, and there was an enormous Steinbeck conference at Hofstra University. But when The Grapes of Wrath was published in 1939, there was an intense effort to ban the novel and its film version and to vilify, discredit, and damage the author. Steinbeck is still one of the chief targets of censors, but in addition to attacks for political and allegedly moral reasons, he is also discredited by part of the literary establishment that wants to eliminate him from canonical literature.

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A Practical Assesment of Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites

Victor Okhuysen
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

Composites have been developed with great success by the use of fiber reinforcements in polymer matrix materials. However, due to the limitation of some properties of polymer matrices, intense exploration on the use of metallic matrices has ensued, particularly with respect to aluminum. Several challenges stand in the way of production, such as higher processing temperatures, fiber/matrix bonding issues, and the ability to produce desired geometries. However, these problems are being solved and this article reviews the current state of the production of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites in addition to an introductory review of fiber composites in general. Based on current research, the future of these materials lies in the ability to economically produce desired shapes by pressure infiltration systems, and the need for improvement in fiber/matrix bonding and perhaps significant alloy development.

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Students' Facility With U.S. and International Accounting Standards

Marianne L. James
California State University, Los Angeles
 
Carol Blaszczynski
California State University, Los Angeles

This study investigated accounting students' ability to identify the appropriate accounting standards for the United States and other major regions and to gauge their perceptions regarding several aspects of U.S. and International Accounting Standards. Students answers were close to the neutral range for four perception items: (a) the acceptability of U.S. GAAP for Asian and European countries, (b) the requirement of reporting to the SEC, (c) the conservatism of U.S. GAAP, and (d) the growing compatibility between U.S. GAAP and International Accounting Standards. Students perceived knowledge about international accounting standards as somewhat important for business careers.

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Interdisciplinary Design Education Through Service Learning

Kip A. Dickson
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

Upper division architectural design students have been exploring the design process through direct involvement with the development of "project-based" learning activities in local K-12 schools. The interdisciplinary class combined architecture students from a College of Environmental Design with student teachers from College of Education and Integrative Studies working on their graduate teaching credential. These student teachers are learning to utilize "design-based" learning techniques in the development of curricula for K-12 students in the Southern California Region. Architecture students utilized their in-class experiences to foster the design and development of furniture prototypes aimed at providing flexible learning environments for K-12 "design-based" learners.

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Tasting the Good and the Beautiful: The Aestheticization of Eating and Drinking in Traditional Chinese Culture

Da'an Pan
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

Exploring traditional Chinese gastronomic culture in terms of its interdisciplinary expression and values, this article argues that eating and drinking, as sources of creative imagination and aesthetic pleasure, are integral to the creative process in Chinese literature and art, and possess a double value integrating the good with the beautiful. Gastronomic and artistic creations are mutually enhancing and mutually inspiring in their common pursuit of beauty. While exemplifying the holistic values of Chinese culture, the aestheticization of eating and drinking contributes to finer, richer gastronomic experiences. An investigation into the phenomenon opens a window to understanding the development of Chinese gastronomy, thus shedding cross-cultural light on the study of contemporary gastronomy.

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Lower Secondary School Curriculum Development in Vietnam

Frederick J. Baker
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
 
Rosalie Giacchino-Baker
California State University, San Bernardino

The increasing complexity of Vietnam's economic activities, together with a growing number of graduates, is creating substantial social demand for a better educated workforce beyond the Vietnamese primary school. While primary education provides basic cognitive skills, lower secondary education provides a foundation for producing a flexible, productive and globally competitive workforce to sustain high economic growth. Accordingly, lower secondary school enrollments have increased significantly from 3.1 million students in 1993 to 5.3 million students in 1997 for an average annual enrollment growth rate of about 14 percent (Nguyen Dang Thin, 2000). Enrollment is projected by the Vietnamese government to reach 7.9 million students in 2005. This rapid expansion has resulted in deteriorating quality of lower secondary education, which is aggravated by double and triple scheduling of classes in schools to accommodate such rapid expansion. The poor quality of lower secondary education is caused mainly by unsuitable curriculum and shortages of physical and human resources (including textbooks, instructional materials, and qualified teachers). In 1997, almost 20 percent of lower secondary teachers remained under-qualified. The lack of adequately trained teachers to meet the demand of a modern curriculum and to deliver teaching effectively is a major cause of internal inefficiency in lower secondary education.

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The Multiple Causes of the LAPD Rampart Scandal

Renford Reese
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

The Los Angeles Police Department is a complex organization, one that is characterized by many paradoxes. The perception of the department has ranged from being the best police force in the nation to being a staunchly racist organization. The consequence of periodic scandals has taken a toll on the image of this organization. As a result of the (most recent) LAPD Rampart Scandal, 100 criminal cases have been overturned. The city of Los Angeles has paid upwards of $100 million for the indiscretions of the Rampart Division of the LAPD. Public trust in the LAPD is at an all-time low. After the federal government initiated a consent decree for the department, it is once again attempting to rehabilitate its image. This article explores the causes and consequences of the LAPD Rampart Scandal. More specifically, it examines this scandal as it relates to issues of leadership, accountability, and organizational culture.

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Enterprise/Operational Risk Management

Jeffrey Lee Cowherd
IT Audit Manager City National Bank
 
Daniel P. Manson
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

Enterprise risk management (ERM) is a relatively new discipline that focuses on identifying, analyzing, monitoring, and controlling all major risk classes (e.g., credit, market, liquidity, operational risk classes). Operational risk management (ORM) is a subset of ERM that focuses on identifying, analyzing, monitoring, and controlling operational risk. The purpose of this article is to explain what enterprise risk management is and how operational risk management first into the ERM framework. In our conclusion, we discuss what is likely to happen in the ERM/ORM environment over the next 5 years.

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Plagiarism as a Cross-Cultural Phenomenon

Karen Russikoff
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
 
Liliane Fucaloro
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
 
Dalia Salkauskiene
University of Vilnius, Lithuania

Many faculty address potential plagiarism with only a brief mention, believing that students understand and know how to avoid it. In fact, the issue is complex and dynamic. While ready access of Internet material has promoted copying without attribution, the diversity of students and faculty on American campuses who represent varied cultural, linguistic, and educational backgrounds also influences documentation conceptualization and practice. University students in China (PRC), Latvia, Lithuania, and the United States were surveyed to see how they regarded the concept of plagiarism and how their perception matched actual academic practices. The results suggest that plagiarism may be attributed to multiple variables, including historical, political, economic, social, pedagogical, and technological influences. Additional anecdotal evidence was collected. In one example, citing a half-century of Soviet rule in the Baltic States which had done away with the concept of personal property, students often failed to acknowledge the value of intellectual property, an especially abstract notion. Plagiarism has often een an outgrowth of differences in understanding. Therefore, implications include the need for increased awareness and knowledge by faculty and students provided through pedagogical support for discipline-specific instruction.

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Non-Market Determinants of Exchange Market Interventions

Ahmad N. Abdel-Rahman
California State University, San Bernardino
 
Mohammad R. Safarzadeh
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

While it appears that interventions in exchange markets can and have been successful during the floating rate period, it has been so only in isolated circumstances and periods, and only for very short periods of time. If intervention has no effect or a limited impact, then why do central banks intervene in the foreign exchange market to influence the path of the exchange rate? It is perhaps reasonable to conclude then that it might be used exclusively to buy time for policy makers and market participants. Effective intervention would then smooth the costs of implementing domestic policy adjustments for external balance concerns, or would prevent short-run foreign exchange market disruption.

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Changes in Work Organisation: A Comparison of North America, Latin America and Australia

Paul Hyland
Central Queensland University
 
Robert Mellor
University of Western Sydney
 
Gordon Stewart
Central Queesnsland University
 
John Karayan
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

While manufacturing has fluctuated in relative importance during much of the 20th century, it continues to play a key role in the development of most economies. In the past decade there have been a large number of significant changes in the organisation of work in manufacturing, which have resulted in more flexible and cost efficient methods and higher quality products. This study examines some of the differences in work organisation practices and training between Australian firms and firms in the Americas. Also, it examines outcomes across the differing regions. The analysis utilises data from the second International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS).

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Global Training With The Multi Lingual Web-Based Strategic Management Analysis Model

Behrouz A. Aslani
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

The Multi Lingual Web-Based Business Strategic Management Analysis Model, which is available in Armenian, English, French, and Russian, consists of instructor and student software. A competitive industrial environment and customized business environment make this software unique. One of the aims of the software is to improve the skill and ability of decision makers in a dynamic business setting. The business setting is composed of up to ten companies producing two manufacturing goods, color and digital televisions, sold in three markets. Recently (in Spring 2002), this software was used as a vehicle to bring together business major students from a comprehensive California State University, Petrozavodsk State University (Russia), and State Engineering University of Armenia (Armenia). The software offered students an opportunity to communicate with their peers at the other geographical locations and acquaint themselves with other cultures. This article presents the major features of the software and a teaching method adapted to instruct students from three countries. The article also shares some experience gained in the cyber environment.

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Travel as Divine [Design] Inspiration

Jen Bracy
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

Since the terror of 9/11, many Americans have cut back their traveling, opting to stay close to home. This is unfortunate for many reasons, and it is especially regrettable for artists and desginers, for whom travel has been a great source of inspiration. In our complex information age, surrounded by pictures and words, art and graphic design have become the universal language. What better way to understand the chaose of the world, in an effort to make order out of it, then to experience it firsthand?

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Chinese Exclusion Laws and the U.S. - China Relationship

Haiming Liu
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, followed by a series of Chinese exclusion laws, barred the Chinese from coming to this country for half a century. While existing scholarship on this topic has focused on American racial politics, this article documents how the U.S. - China relationship impacted the making of the Chinese exclusion laws. The thesis is that racist immigration laws reflected not only the domestic situation in America but also China's inernational standing and ups and downs in the U.S. - China relationship. The unfair treatment of the Chinese in America had a great deal to do with a divided and weakened China. This linkage between Chinese America and China is a key issue for understanding the Chinese American experience.

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Applications of Technology in Accounting Education and Analysis of Its Use Among Faculty

Nas Ahadiat
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

A number of professional organizations have called on accounting faculty to use technology in their courses. Given the range of technologies available, the purpose of this study is to determine what technologies have widespread applications among accounting educators. In addition, the study investigates whether differences exist among educators in their choices of technology and the extent to which they use it. The information presented in this article also can be used by administrators to develop an effective policy designed to ensure broad participation of faculty in the integration of technology into the university curriculum.

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Two Theorems Dealing With Bounds on the Magnitudes of the Distances Between the n-Dimensional Cashwell-Everett Means

Frank Glaser
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

Continuing to develop the theory of weighted n-dimensional means, this article, presents two theorems that follow Theorem 1 (Glaser, 2002) and, hence, are labeled Theorems 2 and 3. Theorem 2 gives a bound on the distance between two one dimensional weighted means (Cashwell-Everett, 1969). Theorem 3 generalizes this bound for the distance between two n-dimensional means.

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