Contents
Cal Poly Pomona

The Civil Rights Act of 1991

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

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The Civil Rights Act of 1991

EDITOR'S NOTE: The text of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 (Pub. L. 102-166), as enacted on November 21, 1991, appears below with the following modifications:

1. The text of the sections of the CRA that amend the laws enforced by EEOC (i.e., Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990) is not printed below. Instead, these amendments are printed elsewhere in this publication.

2. The following portions of the CRA that are not enforced by EEOC are referenced, but not reprinted here:

Section 117 (coverage of the U.S. House of Representatives and agencies of the Legislative Branch);

Title II (The Glass Ceiling Act); and

Portions of Title III (Establishing the Office of Senate Fair Employment Practices).

3. Title V, which amends the Civil War Sites Study Act of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-628) is not reprinted here.

4. Cross references to the U.S. Code, where applicable, appear in italics following each section heading. Editor's notes also appear in italics.

________________________________________

An Act

To amend the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to strengthen and improve Federal civil rights laws, to provide for damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination, to clarify provisions regarding disparate impact actions, and for other purposes.

 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, This Act may be cited as the " Civil Rights Act of 1991".

 

* * *

 

FINDINGS

 

SEC. 2 [42 U.S.C. 1981 note]

 

The Congress finds that-

 

(1) additional remedies under Federal law are needed to deter unlawful harassment and intentional discrimination in the workplace;

 

(2) the decision of the Supreme Court in Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio, 490 U.S. 642 (1989) has weakened the scope and effectiveness of Federal civil rights protections; and

 

(3) legislation is necessary to provide additional protections against unlawful discrimination in employment.

 

 

PURPOSES

 

SEC. 3 [42 U.S.C. 1981 note]

 

The purposes of this Act are-

 

(1) to provide appropriate remedies for intentional discrimination and unlawful harassment in the workplace;

 

(2) to codify the concepts of "business necessity" and " job related" enunciated by the Supreme Court in Griggs v. Duke Power Co., 401 U.S. 424 (1971), and in the other Supreme Court decisions prior to Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio, 490 U.S. 642 (1989);

 

(3) to confirm statutory authority and provide statutory guidelines for the adjudication of disparate impact suits under title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.); and

 

(4) to respond to recent decisions of the Supreme Court by expanding the scope of relevant civil rights statutes in order to provide adequate protection to victims of discrimination.

 

 

TITLE I - FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS REMEDIES

 

PROHIBITION AGAINST ALL RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN THE MAKING AND ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTS

 

SEC. 101

 

Section 1977 of the Revised Statutes (42 U.S.C. 1981) is amended-

 

(1) by inserting "(a)" before "All persons within"; and

 

(2) by adding at the end the following new subsections:

 

"(b) For purposes of this section, the term 'make and enforce contracts' includes the making, performance, modification, and termination of contracts, and the enjoyment of all benefits, privileges, terms, and conditions of the contractual relationship.

 

"(c) The rights protected by this section are protected against impairment by nongovernmental discrimination and impairment under color of State law."

 

 

DAMAGES IN CASES OF INTENTIONAL DISCRIMINATION

 

SEC. 102

 

The Revised Statutes are amended by inserting after section 1977 (42 U.S.C. 1981) the following new section:

 

"SEC. 1977A. DAMAGES IN CASES OF INTENTIONAL DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT. [42 U.S.C. 1981a]

 

"(a) Right of Recovery. -

 

"(1) Civil Rights. - In an action brought by a complaining party under section 706 or 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-5) against a respondent who engaged in unlawful intentional discrimination (not an employment practice that is unlawful because of its disparate impact) prohibited under section 703, 704, or 717 of the Act (42

U.S.C. 2000e-2 or 2000e-3), and provided that the complaining party cannot recover under section 1977 of the Revised Statutes (42 U.S.C. 1981), the complaining party may recover compensatory and punitive damages as allowed in subsection (b), in addition to any relief authorized by section 706(g) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, from the respondent.

 

"(2) Disability. - In an action brought by a complaining party under the powers, remedies, and procedures set forth in section 706 or 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (as provided in section 107(a) of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12117 (a)), and section 505(a)(1) of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794a(a)(1)), respectively) against a respondent who engaged in unlawful intentional discrimination (not an employment practice that is unlawful because of its disparate impact) under section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791) and the regulations implementing section 501, or who violated the requirements of section 501 of the Act or the regulations implementing section 501 concerning the provision of a reasonable accommodation, or section 102 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12112), or committed a violation of section 102(b)(5) of the Act, against an individual, the complaining party may recover compensatory and punitive damages as allowed in subsection (b), in addition to any relief authorized by section 706(g) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, from the respondent.

 

"(3) Reasonable Accommodation and Good Faith Effort. - In cases where a discriminatory practice involves the provision of a reasonable accommodation pursuant to section 102(b)(5) of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 or regulations implementing section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, damages may not be awarded under this section where the covered entity demonstrates good faith efforts, in consultation with the person with the disability who has informed the covered entity that accommodation is needed, to identify and make a reasonable accommodation that would provide such individual with an equally effective opportunity and would not cause an undue hardship on the operation of the business.

 

"(b) Compensatory and Punitive Damages. -

 

"(1) Determination of punitive damages. - A complaining party may recover punitive damages under this section against a respondent (other than a government, government agency or political subdivision) if the complaining party demonstrates that the respondent engaged in a discriminatory practice or discriminatory practices with malice or with reckless indifference to the federally protected rights of an aggrieved individual.

 

"(2) Exclusions from compensatory damages. - Compensatory damages awarded under this section shall not include backpay, interest on backpay, or any other type of relief authorized under section 706(g) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

 

"(3) Limitations. - The sum of the amount of compensatory damages awarded under this section for future pecuniary losses, emotional pain, suffering, inconvenience, mental anguish, loss of enjoyment of life, and other nonpecuniary losses, and the amount of punitive damages awarded under this section, shall not exceed, for each complaining party -

 

"(A) in the case of a respondent who has more than 14 and fewer than 101 employees in each of 20 or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year, $50,000;

 

"(B) in the case of a respondent who has more than 100 and fewer than 201 employees in each of 20 or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year, $100,000; and

 

"(C) in the case of a respondent who has more than 200 and fewer than 501 employees in each of 20 or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year, $200,000; and

 

"(D) in the case of a respondent who has more than 500 employees in each of 20 or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year, $300,000.

 

"(4) Construction. - Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the scope of, or the relief available under, section 1977 of the Revised Statutes (42 U.S.C. 1981).

 

"(c) Jury Trial. - If a complaining party seeks compensatory or punitive damages under this section -

 

"(1) any party may demand a trial by jury; and

 

"(2) the court shall not inform the jury of the limitations described in subsection (b)(3).

 

"(d) Definitions. - As used in this section:

 

"(1) Complaining party. - The term 'complaining party' means - " (A) in the case of a person seeking to bring an action under subsection (a)(1), the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Attorney General, or a person who may bring an action or proceeding under title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.); or

 

"(B) in the case of a person seeking to bring an action under subsection (a)(2), the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Attorney General, a person who may bring an action or proceeding under section 505(a)(1) of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794a(a)(1)), or a person who may bring an action or proceeding under title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.).

 

"(2) Discriminatory practice. - The term 'discriminatory practice' means the discrimination described in paragraph (1), or the discrimination or the violation described in paragraph (2), of subsection (a).

 

 

ATTORNEY'S FEES

 

[This section amends section 722 of the Revised Statutes (42 U.S.C. 1988) by adding a reference to section 102 of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 to the list of civil rights actions in which reasonable attorney's fees may be awarded to the prevailing party, other than the United States.]

 

SEC. 103

 

The last sentence of section 722 of the Revised Statutes (42 U.S.C. 1988) is amended by inserting ",1977A" after "1977".

 

 

DEFINITIONS

 

SEC. 104

 

[This section amends section 701 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e) by adding the following new subsections: (l) " complaining party," (m) "demonstrates," and (n) " respondent".]

 

 

BURDEN OF PROOF IN DISPARATE IMPACT CASES

 

SEC. 105

 

(a) [This subsection amends section 703 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-2) by adding a new subsection (k), on the burden of proof in disparate impact cases.]

 

(b) No statements other than the interpretive memorandum appearing at Vol. 137 Congressional Record S 15276 (daily ed. Oct. 25, 1991) shall be considered legislative history of, or relied upon in any way as legislative history in construing or applying, any provision of this Act that relates to Wards Cove - Business necessity/ cumulation/alternative business practice. [42 U.S.C. 1981 note]

 

 

PROHIBITION AGAINST DISCRIMINATORY USE OF TEST SCORES

 

SEC. 106

 

[This section amends section 703 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-2) by adding a new subsection (l), on the prohibition against discriminatory use of test scores.]

 

 

CLARIFYING PROHIBITION AGAINST IMPERMISSIBLE

CONSIDERATION OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, SEX, OR NATIONAL ORIGIN IN EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES

 

SEC. 107

 

(a) In general. [This subsection amends section 703 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-2) by adding a new subsection (m), clarifying the prohibition against consideration of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in employment practices.]

 

(b) Enforcement provisions. [This subsection amends section 706(g) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-5(g)) by renumbering existing subsection (g), and adding at the end a new subparagraph (B) to provide a limitation on available relief in "mixed motive" cases (where the employer demonstrates it would have made the same decision in the absence of discrimination).]

 

 

FACILITATING PROMPT AND ORDERLY RESOLUTION OF CHALLENGES TO EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES IMPLEMENTING LITIGATED OR CONSENT JUDGMENTS OR ORDERS

 

SEC. 108

 

[This section amends section 703 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-2) by adding a new subsection (n), on the resolution of challenges to employment practices implementing litigated or consent judgments or orders.]

 

 

PROTECTION OF EXTRATERRITORIAL EMPLOYMENT

 

SEC. 109

 

(a) Definition of Employee. [This subsection amends the definition of " employee" in section 701(f) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e(f)) and section 101(4) of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12111(4)) by adding a sentence to the end of each definition to include U.S. citizens employed abroad within the laws' protections.]

 

(b) Exemption. [This subsection amends section 702 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-1) by adding new subsections (b) (on compliance with the statute if violative of foreign law) and (c) (on the control of a corporation incorporated in a foreign country). This subsection similarly amends section 102 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12112) by relettering the existing subsections and adding a new subsection (c) "Covered Entities in Foreign Countries."]

 

(c) Application of Amendments. - The amendments made by this section shall not apply with respect to conduct occurring before the date of the enactment of this Act. [42 U.S.C. 2000e note]

 

 

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TRAINING INSTITUTE

 

SEC. 110

 

(a) Technical Assistance. [This subsection amends section 705 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-4) by adding a new subsection (j), establishing the Technical Assistance Training Institute.]

 

(b) Effective Date. - The amendment made by this section shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act. [42 U.S.C. 2000e-4 note]

 

 

EDUCATION AND OUTREACH

 

SEC. 111

 

[This section amends section 705(h) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-4(h)) by renumbering the existing subsection and adding at the end a paragraph requiring the EEOC to engage in certain educational and outreach activities.]

 

 

EXPANSION OF RIGHT TO CHALLENGE DISCRIMINATORY

SENIORITY SYSTEMS

 

SEC. 112

 

[This section amends section 706(e) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-5(e)) by renumbering the subsection and adding at the end a paragraph to expand the right of claimants to challenge discriminatory seniority systems.]

 

 

AUTHORIZING AWARD OF EXPERT FEES

 

SEC. 113

 

(a) Revised Statutes. - Section 722 of the Revised Statutes is amended-

 

(1) by designating the first and second sentences as subsections (a) and (b), respectively, and indenting accordingly; and

 

(2) by adding at the end the following new subsection:

 

"(c) In awarding an attorney's fee under subsection (b) in any action or proceeding to enforce a provision of section 1977 or 1977A of the Revised Statutes, the court, in its discretion, may include expert fees as part of the attorney's fee." [42 U.S.C. 1988]

 

(b) Civil Rights Act of 1964. [This section amends section 706(k) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-5(k)) to provide for recovery of expert fees as part of an attorney's fees award.]

 

 

PROVIDING FOR INTEREST AND EXTENDING THE STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS IN ACTIONS AGAINST THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

 

SEC. 114

 

[This section amends section 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-16) by extending the time for federal employees or applicants to file a civil action from 30 to 90 days (from receipt of notice of final action taken by a department, agency or unit), and allowing federal employees or applicants the same interest to compensate for delay in payments as is available in cases involving nonpublic parties.]

 

 

NOTICE OF LIMITATIONS PERIOD UNDER THE AGE DISCRIMINATION

IN EMPLOYMENT ACT OF 1967

 

SEC. 115

 

[This section amends section 7(e) of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) (29 U.S.C. 626(e)) by eliminating the two- and three-year statute of limitations and making ADEA suit- filing requirements the same as those under Title VII, and requiring the EEOC to provide notice to charging parties upon termination of the proceedings.]

 

 

LAWFUL, COURT-ORDERED REMEDIES, AFFIRMATIVE ACTION, AND CONCILIATION AGREEMENTS NOT AFFECTED

 

SEC. 116 [42 U.S.C. 1981 note]

 

Nothing in the amendments made by this title shall be construed to affect court-ordered remedies, affirmative action, or conciliation agreements, that are in accordance with the law.

 

 

COVERAGE OF HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND THE AGENCIES OF THE

LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

 

SEC. 117

 

(a) Coverage of the House of Representatives. [This subsection extends the rights and protections of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, to employees of the U.S. House of Representatives. Procedures for processing discrimination complaints are handled internally by the House, not by the EEOC.] [2 U.S.C. 60l]

 

(b) Instrumentalities of Congress. [This subsection extends the rights and protections of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, to "Instrumentalities of Congress," which are defined to include: the Architect of the

Capitol, the Congressional Budget Office, the General Accounting Office, the Government Printing Office, the Office of Technology Assessment, and the United States Botanic Garden. Each agency is to establish its own remedies and procedures for enforcement.]

 

 

ALTERNATIVE MEANS OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION

 

SEC. 118 [42 U.S.C. 1981 note]

 

Where appropriate and to the extent authorized by law, the use of alternative means of dispute resolution, including settlement negotiations, conciliation, facilitation, mediation, factfinding, minitrials, and arbitration, is encouraged to resolve disputes arising under the Acts or provisions of Federal law amended by this title.

 

 

TITLE II - GLASS CEILING

[This title sets up a "Glass Ceiling Commission" to focus attention on, and complete a study relating to, the existence of artificial barriers to the advancement of women and minorities in the workplace, and to make recommendations for overcoming such barriers. The Commission is to be composed of 21 members, with the Secretary of Labor serving as the Chairperson of the Commission. This title does not directly impose any responsibilities or obligations on the EEOC except to provide information and technical assistance as requested by the new Commission.] [42 U.S.C. 2000e note]

 

 

TITLE III - GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991

 

SEC. 301 [2 U.S.C. 1201]

 

(a) Short title. - This title may be cited as the "Government Employee Rights Act of 1991".

 

(b) Purpose. - The purpose of this title is to provide procedures to protect the right of Senate and other government employees, with respect to their public employment, to be free of discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or disability.

 

(c) Definitions. - For purposes of this title:

 

(1) Senate employee. - The term "Senate employee" or "employee" means -

 

(A) any employee whose pay is disbursed by the Secretary of the Senate;

 

(B) any employee of the Architect of the Capitol who is assigned to the Senate Restaurants or to the Superintendent of the Senate Office Buildings;

 

(C) any applicant for a position that will last 90 days or more and that is to be occupied by an individual described in subparagraph (A) or

(B); or

 

(D) any individual who was formerly an employee described in subparagraph (A) or (B) and whose claim of a violation arises out of the individual's Senate employment.

 

(2) Head of employing office. - The term "head of employing office" means the individual who has final authority to appoint, hire, discharge, and set the terms, conditions or privileges of the Senate employment of an employee.

 

(3) Violation. - The term "violation" means a practice that violates section 302 of this title.

 

 

DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES PROHIBITED

 

SEC. 302 [2 U.S.C. 1202]

 

[Sections 320 and 321 (which protect Presidential appointees and previously exempt state employees who may file complaints of discrimination with EEOC under this title) refer to the rights, protections and remedies of this section and section 307(h).]

 

All personnel actions affecting employees of the Senate shall be made free from any discrimination based on -

 

(1) race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, within the meaning of section 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-16);

 

(2) age, within the meaning of section 15 of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (29 U.S.C. 633a); or

 

(3) handicap or disability, within the meaning of section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791) and sections 102-104 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12112-14).

 

 

[SECTIONS 303 THROUGH 306: Section 303 (2 U.S.C. 1203) establishes the Office of Senate Fair Employment Practices, which will administer the procedures set forth in sections 304 through 307. Section 304 (2 U.S.C. 1204) outlines the four-step procedure described in Sections 305 through 309 for consideration of alleged violations. Section 305 (2 U.S.C. 1205) describes the Step I counseling procedures. Section 306 (2 U.S.C. 1206) describes the Step II mediation process. Section 307 (2 U.S.C. 1207), described fully below, sets forth the formal complaint and hearing procedures.]

 

 

STEP III: FORMAL COMPLAINT AND HEARING

 

SEC. 307 [2 U.S.C. 1207]

 

[SECTION 307, SUBSECTIONS (a) THROUGH (g), AND (i): Subsections (a) through (g), and (i) of Section 307 describe the process from the formal complaint through the hearing stage.]

 

[Sections 320 and 321 (which protect Presidential appointees and previously exempt state employees who may file complaints of discrimination with EEOC under this title) refer to the rights, protections and remedies of section 302 and the following subsection.]

 

(h) Remedies. - If the hearing board determines that a violation has occurred, it shall order such remedies as would be appropriate if awarded under section 706 (g) and (k) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-5 (g) and (k)), and may also order the award of such compensatory damages as would be appropriate if awarded under section 1977 and section 1977A (a) and (b)(2) of the Revised Statutes (42 U.S.C. 1981 and 1981A (a) and (b)(2)). In the case of a determination that a violation based on age has occurred, the hearing board shall order such remedies as would be appropriate if awarded under section 15(c) of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (29 U.S.C. 633a(c)). Any order requiring the payment of money must be approved by a Senate resolution reported by the Committee on Rules and Administration. The hearing board shall have no authority to award punitive damages.

 

 

[SECTIONS 308 THROUGH 313: Section 308 (2 U.S.C. 1208) describes the procedures by which a Senate employee or head of an employing office may request a review by the Select Committee on Ethics of a decision issued under Section 307. Section 309 (2 U.S.C. 1209) describes the circumstances under which a Senate employee or Member of the Senate may petition for a review by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Section 310 (2 U.S.C. 1210) describes the procedures by which a complaint may be resolved. Section 311 (2 U.S.C. 1211) enumerates reimbursable costs of attending hearings. Section 312 (2 U.S.C. 1212) prohibits intimidation or reprisal against any employee because of the exercise of a right under this title. Section 313 (2 U.S.C. 1213) outlines confidentiality requirements for counseling, mediation, hearings, final decisions, and records.]

 

 

EXERCISE OF RULEMAKING POWER

 

SEC. 314 [2 U.S.C. 1214]

 

The provisions of this title, except for sections 309, 320, 321, and 322, are enacted by the Senate as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the Senate, with full recognition of the right of the Senate to change its rules, in the same manner, and to the same extent, as in the case of any other rule of the Senate. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, except as provided in section 309, enforcement and adjudication with respect to the discriminatory practices prohibited by section 302, and arising out of Senate employment, shall be within the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States Senate.

 

TECHNICAL AND CONFORMING AMENDMENTS

 

SEC. 315

 

[This section makes technical and conforming amendments to section 509 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 ( ADA ) (42 U.S.C. 12209) with respect to Senate employees.]

 

[SECTIONS 316 THROUGH 319: Section 316 (2 U.S.C. 1215) states that the consideration of political affiliation, domicile, and political compatibility with the employing office in an employment decision shall not be considered a violation of this title. Section 317 (2 U.S.C. 1216) states that a Senate employee may not commence a judicial proceeding to redress a prohibited discriminatory practice, except as provided in this title. Sec. 318 (2 U.S.C. 1217) expresses the Senate's view that legislation should be enacted to provide the same or comparable rights and remedies as are provided under this title to Congressional employees lacking such rights and remedies. Section 319 (2 U.S.C. 1218) reaffirms the Senate's commitment to Rule XLII of the Standing Rules of the Senate.]

 

 

COVERAGE OF PRESIDENTIAL APPOINTEES.

 

SEC. 320 [2 U.S.C. 1219]

 

(a) In General. -

 

(1) Application. - The rights, protections, and remedies provided pursuant to section 302 and 307(h) of this title shall apply with respect to employment of Presidential appointees.

 

(2) Enforcement by administrative action. - Any Presidential appointee may file a complaint alleging a violation, not later than 180 days after the occurrence of the alleged violation, with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, or such other entity as is designated by the President by Executive Order, which, in accordance with the principles and procedures set forth in sections 554 through 557 of title 5, United States Code, shall determine whether a violation has occurred and shall set forth its determination in a final order. If the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, or such other entity as is designated by the President pursuant to this section, determines that a violation has occurred, the final order shall also provide for appropriate relief.

 

(3) Judicial review. -

 

(A) In general. - Any party aggrieved by a final order under paragraph (2) may petition for review by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.

 

(B) Law applicable. - Chapter 158 of title 28, United States Code, shall apply to a review under this section except that the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission or such other entity as the President may designate under paragraph (2) shall be an "agency" as that term is used in chapter 158 of title 28, United States Code.

 

(C) Standard of review. - To the extent necessary to decision and when presented, the reviewing court shall decide all relevant questions of law and interpret constitutional and statutory provisions. The court shall set aside a final order under paragraph (2) if it is determined that the order was -

 

(i) arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not consistent with law;

 

(ii) not made consistent with required procedures; or

 

(iii) unsupported by substantial evidence.

 

In making the foregoing determinations, the court shall review the whole record or those parts of it cited by a party, and due account shall be taken of the rule of prejudicial error.

 

(D) Attorney's fees. - If the presidential appointee is the prevailing party in a proceeding under this section, attorney's fees may be allowed by the court in accordance with the standards prescribed under section 706(k) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-5(k)).

 

(b) Presidential appointee. - For purposes of this section, the term " Presidential appointee" means any officer or employee, or an applicant seeking to become an officer or employee, in any unit of the Executive Branch, including the Executive Office of the President, whether appointed by the President or by any other appointing authority in the

Executive Branch, who is not already entitled to bring an action under any of the statutes referred to in section 302 but does not include any individual -

 

(1) whose appointment is made by and with the advice and consent of the Senate;

 

(2) who is appointed to an advisory committee, as defined in section 3(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.); or

 

(3) who is a member of the uniformed services.

 

 

COVERAGE OF PREVIOUSLY EXEMPT STATE EMPLOYEES SEC. 321 [2 U.S.C. 1220]

 

(a) Application. - The rights, protections, and remedies provided pursuant to section 302 and 307(h) of this title shall apply with respect to employment of any individual chosen or appointed, by a person elected to public office in any State or political subdivision of any State by the qualified voters thereof -

 

(1) to be a member of the elected official's personal staff;

 

(2) to serve the elected official on the policymaking level; or

 

(3) to serve the elected official as an immediate advisor with respect to the exercise of the constitutional or legal powers of the office.

 

(b) Enforcement by administrative action. -

 

(1) In general. - Any individual referred to in subsection (a) may file a complaint alleging a violation, not later than 180 days after the occurrence of the alleged violation, with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, which, in accordance with the principles and procedures set forth in sections 554 through 557 of title 5, United States Code, shall determine whether a violation has occurred and shall set forth its determination in a final order. If the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission determines that a violation has occurred, the final order shall also provide for appropriate relief.

 

(2) Referral to state and local authorities. -

 

(A) Application. - Section 706(d) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-5(d)) shall apply with respect to any proceeding under this section.

 

(B) Definition. - For purposes of the application described in subparagraph (A), the term "any charge filed by a member of the Commission alleging an unlawful employment practice" means a complaint filed under this section.

 

(c) Judicial review. - Any party aggrieved by a final order under subsection (b) may obtain a review of such order under chapter 158 of title 28, United States Code. For the purpose of this review, the Equal

Employment Opportunity Commission shall be an "agency" as that term is used in chapter 158 of title 28, United States Code.

 

 

(d) Standard of review. - To the extent necessary to decision and when presented, the reviewing court shall decide all relevant questions of law and interpret constitutional and statutory provisions. The court shall set aside a final order under subsection (b) if it is determined that the order was -

 

(1) arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not consistent with law;

 

(2) not made consistent with required procedures; or

 

(3) unsupported by substantial evidence.

 

In making the foregoing determinations, the court shall review the whole record or those parts of it cited by a party, and due account shall be taken of the rule of prejudicial error.

 

(e) Attorney's fees. - If the individual referred to in subsection (a) is the prevailing party in a proceeding under this subsection, attorney's fees may be allowed by the court in accordance with the standards prescribed under section 706(k) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-5(k)).

 

 

SEVERABILITY

 

SEC. 322 [2 U.S.C. 1221]

 

Notwithstanding section 401 of this Act, if any provision of section 309 or 320(a)(3) is invalidated, both sections 309 and 320(a)(3) shall have no force and effect.

 

 

PAYMENTS BY THE PRESIDENT OR A MEMBER OF THE SENATE

 

SEC. 323 [2 U.S.C. 1222]

 

The President or a Member of the Senate shall reimburse the appropriate Federal account for any payment made on his or her behalf out of such account for a violation committed under the provisions of this title by the President or Member of the Senate not later than 60 days after the payment is made.

 

 

REPORTS OF SENATE COMMITTEES

 

SEC. 324 [2 U.S.C. 1223]

 

(a) Each report accompanying a bill or joint resolution of a public

character reported by any committee of the Senate (except the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on the Budget) shall contain a listing of the provisions of the bill or joint resolution that apply to Congress and an evaluation of the impact of such provisions on Congress.

 

(b) The provisions of this section are enacted by the Senate as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the Senate, with full recognition of the right of the Senate to change its rules, in the same manner, and to the same extent, as in the case of any other rule of the Senate.

 

 

INTERVENTION AND EXPEDITED REVIEW OF CERTAIN APPEALS

 

SEC. 325 [2 U.S.C. 1224]

 

(a) Intervention. - Because of the constitutional issues that may be raised by section 309 and section 320, any Member of the Senate may intervene as a matter of right in any proceeding under section 309 for the sole purpose of determining the constitutionality of such section.

 

(b) Threshold Matter. - In any proceeding under section 309 or section 320, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit shall determine any issue presented concerning the constitutionality of such section as a threshold matter.

 

(c) Appeal. -

 

(1) In general. - An appeal may be taken directly to the Supreme Court of the United States from any interlocutory or final judgment, decree, or order issued by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit ruling upon the constitutionality of section 309 or 320.

 

(2) Jurisdiction. - The Supreme Court shall, if it has not previously ruled on the question, accept jurisdiction over the appeal referred to in paragraph (1), advance the appeal on the docket and expedite the appeal to the greatest extent possible.

 

 

TITLE IV - GENERAL PROVISIONS

SEVERABILITY

 

SEC. 401 [42 U.S.C. 1981 note]

 

If any provision of this Act, or an amendment made by this Act, or the application of such provision to any person or circumstances is held to be invalid, the remainder of this Act and the amendments made by this Act, and the application of such provision to other persons and circumstances, shall not be affected.

 

 

EFFECTIVE DATE

 

SEC. 402 [42 U.S.C. 1981 note]

 

(a) In General. - Except as otherwise specifically provided, this Act and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect upon enactment.

 

(b) Certain Disparate Impact Cases. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, nothing in this Act shall apply to any disparate impact case for which a complaint was filed before March 1, 1975, and for which an initial decision was rendered after October 30, 1983.

 

Approved November 21, 1991.